one of the fundamental ideas of modern biology and has 3 principles 1) cells are basic unit of structure 2) have one or more cells 3) arise from previously existing cells
contains a nucleus and other organelles that are the bound by membranes, also referred to as membrane bound organelles
-have a nucleus
-have a membrane bound organelles
is a distinct central organelle that contains the cell's general material in the form of DNA
cells without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
-do not have membrane young organelles
-have lose strands of DNA
three main ideas of the cell theory
1)All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
2) Cells are the basic units of structure and organization of all living organisms
3)Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of the genetic material onto their daughter cells
fluid mosaic model
a plasma membrane with components constantly in motion, sliding past one another within the lipid bilayer
two layers of phospholipids are arranged tail-to-tail. In the plasma membrane, phospholipids arrange themselves in a way that allows plasma membrane to exist in the watery environment
by which a membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out
more needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane and therefore contributes to the selective permeability of the plasma membrane
Five ways that the membrane can deal with materials
1) keeping molecules out
2) allowing molecules in at any time
3)allowing molecules only at certain times
4)allowing molecules in only in limited amounts
5)expelling wastes from inside the shell
food, storage, and waste
1) golgi apparatus
membrane-bound organelle that converts fuel into energy that is available to the rest of the cell
the environment inside the plasma membrane is a semi-fluid material. Is in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
is a supporting network of long, thin protein fibers that form a framework for the cell and provide an anchor for the organelles inside a cell
in eukaryotic cells -- central bound organelle that directs cell processes; contains the cell's DNA; stores information for cell growth, function, and reproduction
highly folded membrane system in eukaryotic cells that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis
flattened stacks of tubular membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into vesicles and transports them to other organelles or out of the cell
double membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
in plants - the rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, is made of cellulose, and provides support and protection to the cell
cillia / flagella
projections that allow the cells to move or move to substances along the surfaces along the surface of the cell
Both plant and animal cells
energy-requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell
movement of substance from a region of lower concentration to a region of high concentration
net movement of particles from an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where there are fewer
a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell, causing water to leave the cell by osmosis (cell will shrink).
a solution in which the inside of the cell and the solution it is in have the same concentration of water and solutes as the outside, resulting in the cell retaining its normal shape because there is no net movement of water
energy-requring process by which a cell expels wastes and secrets substances at the plasma membrane
form of transport that uses transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane
condition in which there is continuous movement but overall change in concentration
a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes outside than inside the cell, causing water to flow into the cell by osmosis (cell will swell)
water and the plasma membrane
-water flows freely into and out of the cell
-osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
-flow through helps create and maintain homeostasis
-homeostasis is organism maintains conditions suitable for life
tell why hooke called the structures he saw in the cork cellulae ("small rooms")
the boxlike cells of cork reminded him of the cells in which monks live at a monasty
Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their ________ onto their _________.
genetic material to their daughter cells
separates prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells form the watery environment in which they exist
a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate - containing compound
specialized internal cell structure that carries out specific cell functions such as protein synthesis and energy transformation
The _______ is a structure that surrounds a cell and helps control what enters and exits the cell.
If a microscope has a series of three lenses that magnify individually 5x, 5x, and 7x what is the total magnification of the microscope?
Why might a microscopist, who specializes in the use of microscopes to examine specimens, use a light microscope instead of an electron microscope?
The light microscope can see in color and things that are alive.
________ is the property that allows only some substances in and out of the cell.
Which situation would increase the fluidity of a phospholipid bilayer?
increasing the number of cholesterol molecules
How does the orientation of the phospholipids in the bilayer allow a cell to interact with its internal and external environments?
polar heads outside the cell
non polar head inside the cell
What might happen to a cell if it no longer could produce cholesterol?
the cells plasma membrane would be less fluid and homeostasis can't be maintained
Compare the chloroplast to the mitochondrion.
Chloroplast- double membrane organelle with thylakoids containing chlorophyll (photosynthesis) light energy to chemical energy
Mitochondrion- a membrane bound organelle that makes energy chemical to APT