127 terms

HI 101 Final

Northern Renaissance
Southern Renaissance
Johannes Reuchlin
wrote "On the Fundamentals of Hebrew" in 1506; brought before the Inquisition by Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
Brought Johannes Reuchlin and Martin Luther before the Inquisition
Phillip Melanchthon
taught Greek at Wittenberg University
John Colet
Founded St. Paul's School
Sir Thomas More
Wrote "Utopia"; executed because he would not sanctify Henry's divorce from Catherine
William Tyndale
60% of the KJV is based on his works; translated the NT at Wittenberg; burned at the stake
Jacques D'Etaples
Translated the Latin Vulgate into French
Desiderius Erasmus
Wrote "In Praise of Folly"; greatest scholar of the Northern Renaissance; printed teh NT from the original Greek in 1516
Martin Luther
Wrote the 95 Theses to the door of the church
Augustinian monk
Luther was this kind of monk
Albert of Brandenburg
sold indulgences to repay his debt to the Medicis
John Tetzel
said, "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs!" he later became the church's scapegoat
Oct. 31, 1517
Luther nailed his 95 These to the church door (date)
95 Theses
originally written by Luther in Latin; translated into German for everyone to read
Frederick the Wise
protected Luther when Leo X summoned him to Rome
Diet of Augsburg
Luther debated Cardinal Cajetan
Carl von Militz
debated Luther in order to buy the church more time
Leipzig Debate
Debate held between Johann Eck and Luther
Johann Eck
the church's top debater
Sola Scriptura
Means Scripture alone... Luther's cry to the church
To the Chritsian Nobility of the German Nation"
written by Luther to Germany's nobility; defied the church's Two Swords doctrine
Babylonian Captivity
written by Luther; attacked the churhc's Sacramental Beliefs
Freedom of the Christian Man
written by Luther
Luther was excommunicated this year (date)
Diet of Worms
Charles V invited Luther to this Diet
Edict of Worms
Charles V issued this, declaring Luther a heretic and authorizing his citizens to kill Luther
Castle of Wortburg
where Luther hid after he was "kidnapped" by Frederick the Wise's knights
Knight George
Luther's alias while he was in hiding at the Castle of Wortburg
German Bible
translated by Luther from the original Greek; set the standard for the language
Katherina von Bora
former nun who married Luther
Luther died of a heart attack in this year (date)
13 Cantons
Switzerland was divided into these
Ulrich Zwingli
preacher from Switzerland who preached from Matthew
A war broke out among the Cantons over the reformation and lasted between these years (date)
John Calvin
wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
The Anabaptist movement began around this year (date)
followed Thomas Munster; believed in polygamy and violent revolts.
Peasants' Revolt
took place in 1525; Luther was caught in the middle
Augsburg Confession
first Protestant statement of faith
Peace of Augsburg
written in 1555
Thomas de Torcamata
first Grand Inquisitor
Council of Trent
met from 1545-1563; denied salvation by faith and made the pope the ultimate authority once again.
William the Silent
Father of Dutch Liberties
Golden age of Spain
Lasted from 1492-1588; ended with the defeat of the Spanish Armada
Henry VIII
Reigned from 1509-1547; had six wives.
Defender of the Faith
Henry VIII earned this title from the church when he wrote against the Reformation
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII's first wife; she was Catholic; had a daughter, Mary Tudor; Henry divorced her
Church of England
Founded by Henry VIII so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon
Anne Bolyn
Henry VIII's second wife; had one daughter, Elizabeth; executed on charges of adultery
Jane Seymour
Henry's third wife; gave birth to Edward
Anne Cleves
a German princess; Henry married her but quickly divorced her because she was ugly
Catherine Howard
Henry's fifthwife; committed adultery; executed
Catherine Parr
Henry's sixth wife; married him although she was in love with some else; took care of him on his deathbed.
Edward VI
Came to the throne at age 9; died at age 15; made Lady Jane Grey his successor
Lady Jane Grey
Reigned for 9 days before she was executed by Mary Tudor for treason
Mary Tudor
married Phillip II of Spain; known as Bloody Mary; died of uteran cancer
Elizabeth I
Also known as "Good Queen Bess", prepared the English to face off against the Spanish Armada.
Mary Stuart
tried to take the throne away from her cousin Elizabeth; Elizabeth was forced to execute her.
Sir Francis Drake
also known as the "Old Sea Dog"; plundered Spanish Armada ships as he circumnavigated the globe; made a 4,700% profit from his buckaneering
Henry II
King of France; the Huegenots were heavily persecuted under his reign
Reformers in France
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II
Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III
Henry II's and Catherine Medici's sons
Edict of January
a temporary fix for the Protestants; failed.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
arranged by Catherine Medici to take place after her daughter's marrige to Henry Navarre
Admiral Coligny
a major leader of the French Protestant movement; killed during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Henry IV
First Protestant king of France
Edict of Nantes
allowed Huegenots to meet openly and raise up theirown militia
Marie de Medici
Henry IV's wife; mother of Louis XIII
Louis XIII
Came to the throne at a young age, couldn't reign, Cardinal Richelieu became his regent
Thirty Years War
lasted from 1618-1648
the 30 Years War broke out here
made king by the Bohemians
Christian IV
fought in the Thirty Years War and was defeated by the Romans
Gustavus Adolphus
fought in the Thirty Years War and defeated the Romans but was killed in the process
Cardinal Richelieu
reigned fro Louis XIII; led France into the Thirty Years War, helping to end it
Peace of Westphalia
treaty that ended the Thirty Years War; recognized Switzerland and the Netherlands as independent nations
Nicolaus Copernicus
introduced the Heliocentric Theory in his work, "Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres"
Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres
written by Nicolaus Copernicus
Heliocentric theory
introduced by Nicolaus Copernicus in his works "Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres"
Johannes Kepler
introduces the Laws of Planetary Motion in his work, "Harmony of the World"
Laws of Planetary Motion
introduced byJohannes Kepler
"Harmonyof the World"
written by Johannes Kepler; introduced the laws of planetary motion
planets move in this pattern
AD 30
Death and Resurrection of Christ (date)
AD 30
Beginning of the New Testament Church (date)
AD 64
Roman persecution of Christians begins under Nero/ Peter & Paul are martyred (date)
AD 313
Edict of Milan (date)
AD 395
Roman Empire permanently divided/ Byzantium renamed Constantinople and made capital of of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (date)
AD 1081-1118
Reign of Alexius Comnenus/ beginning of Crusades (date)
AD 1453
Capture of Constantinople by Ottoman Turks/ End of Byzantine Empire (date)
AD 843
Treaty of Verdun divides Carolingian Empire (date)
AD 919
Henry the Fowler begins Saxon line of German kings (date)
AD 1229
Council of Toulouse forbids possession of the Bible among laymen (date)
AD 1305-1378
Babylonian Captivity of the papacy (date)
AD 1060
University of Salerno (the first medieval university) is established (date)
AD 1096-1099
First Crusade/ Crusaders establish four kingdoms in Holy Land (date)
AD 1334-1351
Black Death in Europe kills 25 million people (date)
AD 1382
First English Bible is published (date)
AD 1440
Gutenberg invents movable-type printing press (date)
AD 1066
Battle of Hastings/ Beginning of Norman Conquest (date)
AD 1215
Magna Carta is signed by King John (date)
AD 1295
Model Parliament is formed in England (date)
AD 1302
Frist meeting of the Estates General in France (date)
AD 1492
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain defeat last Moorish kingdom in Spain/ Columbus discovers New World/ beginning of Spanish Inquisition (date)
AD 1516
Desidius Erasmus publishes first printed edition of Greek New Testament (date)
AD 1517
Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses in Wittenberg, Germany/ beginning of Protestant Reformation (date)
AD 1521
Diet of Worms (date)
AD 1530
Augsburg Confession (date)
AD 1555
Peace of Augsburg recognizes Lutheranism (date)
AD 1588
England defeats the Spanish Armada (date)
AD 1618-1648
Thirty Years War - last great religious war in Europe/ Peace of Westphalia (date)
AD 1543
Copernicus develops heliocentric view of the universe (date)
AD 1666
French Academy of Science founded by Huguenots and Jansenists (date)
AD 1687
Newton publishes Principia/ development of universal law of gravity and laws of motion (date)
4000 BC
Creation/ fall of mankind (date)
2300 BC
Height of Sumerian civilization/ call of Abraham/ Epic of Gilgamesh/ Sumer is conquered by Amorites and Elamites (date)
1500 BC
Exodus/ Ten Commandments/ Invention of Sinai Script (date)
1100 BC
Conquest of Babylon by Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria (date)
721 BC
Conquest of Northern Kingdom of Israel by Assyrians (date)
586 BC
Destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar/ Babylonian captivity of the Jews (date)
431-404 BC
Peloponnesian War (date)
323 BC
Death of Alexander the Great/ beginning of Hellenistic Age (date)
30 BC
Rome conquers Ptolemaic Egypt/ end of Hellenistic Age (date)