How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

78 terms

Chapter 4 Bio Test

STUDY
PLAY
Resolution is the
ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate.
As cell size increases, the
volume increases faster than the surface area.
You are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. You look at them though a microscope and see cell walls and membrane-bound organelles. You conclude correctly that the cells
are plant cells.
It is essential for heart muscles to beat in a coordinated fashion. The cell junctions that would best facilitate this are
communicating junctions.
The function of mitochondria is
cellular respiration.
According to this figure, which of the following is large enough to see in the light microscope? (see figure)
mitochondria
Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?
Lysosomes synthesize proteins from recycled amino acids.
Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false?
Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells.
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?
nucleoid
The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of
membrane and proteins secreted by the cell.
Contractile vacuoles
prevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water.
The function of chloroplast is
photosynthesis.
The endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes that
a small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells.
Which of the following statements regarding plasmodesmata is false?
Plasmodesmata are commonly found in single-celled organisms.
The __________ of mitochondrion is/are an adaptation that increases the surface area and enhances a mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP..
cristae
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have _________ and _________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have _________.
chloroplasts.....cell walls.....centrioles
Light microscopes
use light and glass lenses to magnify an image.
One centimeter=________millimeters.
10
Most animal cells are
embedded in an extracellular matrix.
Mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in that mitochondria
contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana.
Which of the following would be most affected by a mutation that prevented cells from forming tight junctions?
integrity of the inner lining of the digestive track
A drug that interferes with microtubule formation is likely to completely disrupt
the movements of sperm cells.
Plasma membranes are permeable to
nonpolar molecules such as CO2.
A scanning electron microscope is used to study ________, whereas a transition electron microscope is used to study___________.
cell surfaces......internal cell structures
Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?
both pili and capsules
Which of the following cell structures is associated with the breakdown of harmful substances or substances that are no longer needed by the cell?
peroxisomes
Which of the following statements regarding cells is false?
All cells have a cell wall.
The nucleus of a cell
contains DNA.
Which of the following statements about plant cell walls is false?
Plant cell walls protect plant cells by forming an impermeable layer around the cell.
A bacterial cell's DNA is found in its
nucleoid region.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
stores calcium ions in muscle cells.
Cilia differ from flagella in that
cilia are typically more numerous and shorter than flagella.
Microfilaments differ from microtubles in that microfilaments
are mainly composed of actin, whereas microtubles are composed of tubulin.
Archaea are composed of _________ cells.
prokaryotic
When a cell is deprived of oxygen, its lysosomes tend to burst and release their contents into the cell. As a result of this, the cell will
undergo self-digestion and die.
Long fibers of DNA and protein are called
chromatin.
Tay-Sachs disease
causes an accumulation of lipids in brain cells.
Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?
bacterium
Which of the following statements about the functions of a plant cell central vacuole is false?
The central vacuole of a plant cell may digest chemicals for recycling.
The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cell come from other cells defines
cell theory.
Insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the blood stream. Which of the following options correctly lists the order of the structures through which insulin passes from its production to its exit from the cell?
rough endoplasmic reticulum, transport vesicles, Golgi apparatus, transport vesicles, cell membrane
Skin cells are attached to the extracellular matrix by
anchoring junctions.
Which part of the mitochondrion shown is its matrix? (see figure)
structure E
Secretory proteins are
released from the cell through the plasma membrane.
A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation
will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of __________.
rough endoplasmic reticulum......smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The Golgi apparatus
stores, modifies, and packages protein.
Which location in the cell is unlikely to contain ribosomes or ribosomal subunits?
plasma membrane
Which of the following statements about electron microscopes is true?
Electron microscopes focus electron beams to create a magnified image of an object.
Protein synthesis requires the use of mRNA, which
is translated by the ribosomes into the amino acid sequences of proteins.
The endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except the
peroxisome.
The function of the nucleolus is
to manufacture ribosomal RNA.
_______ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
Prokaryotic
A manufacturing company dumps its wastes into a nearby pond. One of the wastes is found to paralyze the contractile vacuoles of certain protists. A biologist looking at individual samples of these organisms taken from the pond would find that they
have gained water and burst.
A scientist wants to examine living cells lining the respiratory tract to determine how the cells use tiny hairs to move dirt and mucus away from the lungs. Which of the following instruments would be best, and why?
a light microscope, because it allows observations of whole, live cells
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false?
Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place.
A scientist wants to magnify a pollen grain 8,000 times and examine the ridges and pores on its surface. Which one of the following instruments would be best?
a scanning electron microscope
Your throat is dry, and you want the last cough drop in the box to last a long time in your mouth. What should you do?
Keep the cough drop whole. This maintains the largest surface-to-volume ratio, and slows down the dissolution of the cough drop.
During cell reproduction, chromatin fibers coil up into structures called
chromosomes.
nucleus
ribosomes
rough ER
smooth ER
Golgi apparatus

Modification, temporary storage, and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
Golgi apparatus
nucleus
ribosomes
rough ER
smooth ER
Golgi apparatus

Synthesis of membrane proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles
rough ER
nucleus
ribosomes
rough ER
smooth ER
Golgi apparatus

Polypeptide (protein) synthesis
ribosomes
nucleus
ribosomes
rough ER
smooth ER
Golgi apparatus

Lipid synthesis; carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storage
smooth ER
nucleus
ribosomes
rough ER
smooth ER
Golgi apparatus

DNA synthesis; RNA synthesis; assembly of ribosomal subunits (in nucleolus)
nucleus
nucleus
ribosomes
rough ER
smooth ER
Golgi apparatus

This group of cell structures preforms the general function of
Manufacture
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Vacuoles

Digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; water balance
Vacuoles
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Vacuoles

Digestion of nutrients, bacteria, and damages organelles; destruction of certain cells during embryonic development
Lysosomes
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Vacuoles

Diverse metabolic process, with breakdown of H2O2 by-product
Peroxisomes
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Vacuoles

This group of cell structures is responsible for the general function of
Breakdown
Chloroplasts (in plants and some protists)
Mitochondria

Conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars
Chloroplasts (in plants and some protists)
Chloroplasts (in plants and some protists)
Mitochondria

Conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts (in plants and some protists)
Mitochondria

The general function of the cell structures in this group is
Energy processing
Cytoskeleton (including cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Cell Walls (in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Cell Surface (in animals)
Cell Junctions

Surface protection; binding of cells in tissues
Cell Surface (in animals)
Cytoskeleton (including cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Cell Walls (in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Cell Surface (in animals)
Cell Junctions

Maintenance of cell shape and skeletal support; surface protection; binding of cells in tissues
Cell Walls (in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Cytoskeleton (including cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Cell Walls (in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Cell Surface (in animals)
Cell Junctions

Maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles within cells; cell movement
Cytoskeleton (including cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Cytoskeleton (including cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Cell Walls (in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Cell Surface (in animals)
Cell Junctions

Communication between cells; binding of cells in tissues
Cell Junctions
Cytoskeleton (including cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Cell Walls (in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Cell Surface (in animals)
Cell Junctions

The general function of the cell structures in this group is
Support, Movement, and Communication between cells