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Physical Science Final D:
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Gravity
Terms in this set (42)
Steps in the scientific method
1. State the problem
2. Research and Gather Information
3. Form a Hypothesis
4. Test a Hypothesis
5. Analyze the Data
6. Draw Conclusions
Variable
- The factor that is tested in an equation. It is also separated into dependent and independent
What is a kilogram measured in?
- A measure of mass
What does "milli" mean?
- 1/1000
Meniscus
- The curve of a liquid on a cylinder
Dimensional Analysis
- Treating numbers units( words attached to the numbers) as algebraic factors
Balance Measures Mass
- From Left to Right on arrow line: kilo(k) hecta(h) deca(da) base(g,L,m) Deci(d) centi(c) mili(m)
-K(kyle) H(hates) D(dogs) B(becuase) D(dogs) C(Can't) M(mate)
Factor Label Method
- 1.) Write down the given( a number and a unit) and place it over 1.
- 2.) Place the unit of the given in the denominator of the next step.
- 3.) Find a conversion (equality) that links the units; 4 quarters = 1 Dollar
- 4.) Place the correct value with the unit in the denominator, place what is equal to; in the numerator.
- 5.) Finished when the unit in the numerator matches unit being asked for.
- 6.) Multiply across the top; multiply across the bottom; then divide
Law of Conservation of Energy
- Energy that CANNOT be created or DESTROYED but it can change form( the total amount of energy in the system remains the same)
Acceleration
-The rate of change in velocity
-The speed of an object and the direction of its motion
Acceleration=Final Velocity-Initial Velocity over Time
Velocity
-Speed and Direction
-called "speed", a quantity that is measured in meters per
second (m/s ) in the SI (metric) system.
- The speed of an object and the direction of its motion.
Frame of Reference
-The background or object that is used for comparison
- Most common Frame of Reference is Earth
What is "energy" labeled in?
- Joules
Air Resistance
- A friction like force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air
- Acts on the direction opposite to the motion of an object, moving through the air
Centripetal Force
- Force exerted toward the center of a moving object
Newton's First Law of Motion
- States that an object moves at constant velocity unless an UNBALANCED force acts on it.
OR
-an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an outside force
Newton's Second Law of Motion
- Describes how the forces exerted on an object, its mass, and its acceleration are related
OR
- The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object, times its acceleration
- Force = (Mass)(Acceleration)
- N KG M/GH
Newton's Third Law of Motion
- States that when an object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first object that's equal in strength and opposite in direction.
OR
- For every action there is an = and opposite reaction
Momentum
- Inertia of motion
- Property of a moving object that equals its mass times velocity
- Represented by P
Acceleration Due to Gravity
- 9.8 m/s2
- This means that for every second an object is falling, its weight is increased by 9.8 m/s2
Chapter 4
...
Work
- The transfer of energy through motion
- Transfer of energy when a force is applied over distance; Measured in Joules
Work Equation
-Work = Force X Distance
Joules Weight Meters
Mechanical Advantage
- The number of times of a machine multiplies the effort force
Fulcrum
- Fixed point
- At the end that is being held
3rd Class Levers
- Fulcrum is at the rod where you are holding it
- Ex. Shovel, hammer, bat
Effeciency
- Comparing workout put to work input
- Expressed as a percentage
- Can never be greater than 100
Power
- Rate at which work is done
- Power = Work over Time
- To get work add force + distance
- Units: Watts = j/s
Movable Pulley
- Attached to the object you are moving
- Made to multiply the force with which you pull it on
- Cannot change the direction of the effort force
Compound Machine
- Machine that is a combination of two or more simple machines
- Ex; a car, bike, watch
Screw
- An inclined plane wrapped around around a central car or cylinder to form a spiral.
- Ex. Wood screws, cork screw, nuts and bolts
Electroscope
- A device used to determine if an object has a charge
Ohm's Law
- States that the current in a circuit equals the voltage difference divided by the resistance.
Resistors and Resistance
- The force opposing the flow of electrons through the filament
Conductor
- Material, such as copper wire, through which electrons can move easily
Induction
- A material in which electrons are not able to move easily
Potential Difference (Voltage)
- The amount of electric energy available to move electric current
Wet Cell
- Contains two connected plates made up of different metals or metallic compounds in an electrolyte
- Contains led and led oxide
- Most common type of a wet cell battery is a car battery
Parallel Circuit
Electrons can go through more than one path. If one break, the other parts maintain a complete circuit. It prevents all lights and appliances from shutting off when the other stops working
Series Circuit
In which the current must pass through all the resistors. If another bulb is added, the light gets dimmer because the current has to do more work. If a bulb burns out, the current is broken and all the lights will go out
Formulas
Density=mass/volume
Conversions (converting a unit to the correct unit needed)
Speed= Distance/Time (S= d/t)
Acceleration= Final Velocity - Initial Velocity/Time (A= Vf-Vi/t)
Kinetic Energy= 1/2 (mass)(velocity)^2
(KE= 1/2mv^2)
Weight= (mass)(gravity)
W= (m) (9.8 m/s2)
Force= (mass)(acceleration)
(F= ma)
Momentum= (mass)(velocity)
(P= mv)
Work= (force)(distance) (W= fd)
Power= work/time
(P= w/t)
Current= Voltage/Resistance
(I= v/r)
Power= (voltage)(amps) P= (v)(I)
Energy= (power)(time)
(E= pt)
Units
Speed: km/hr or m/s
Distance: km or m
Time: hrs or s
Acceleration: m/s2
Final Velocity: m/s
Initial Velocity: m/s
Kinetic Energy: J
Mass: kg/g
Velocity: m/s
Weight: N
Gravity: m/s2
Force: N
Momentum: kg m/s2
Work: J
Power: Watts
Current: Amps
Voltage: Volts
Resistance: Ohms
Energy: J
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