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2nd Semester Final
Terms in this set (99)
Stock Market Crash (why?)
Many investors were worried about the rapid gains continuing and so they began selling stocks, this causes stock prices to fall, which slowed down productions and led to even greater price drops. DATE: October 29,1929.
6 Causes of Depression
1. Republican Domestic economic policies
2. Unchecked Stock Speculation
3. Weak and Unregulated banking system
4. Overproduction of goods
5. Decline of the farming industry
6. Unequal distribution of wealth
Drought hit the mid and southwestern U.S. in 1930. Soil turned to a powdery dust that swept across the plains in black clouds. Farmers fled, mainly to California in search of employment and land.
Why did Hoover oppose direct federal relief?
Because he believed that only state and city governments should dole out relief
Military vets would want their army.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Make loans to banks, railroads, and agricultural institutions.
The New Deal (what was it?)
Finance, Farms, Debt Relief
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Paid farmers not to plant crops=price up
Social Security Act
Old age retirement and payments to the needy
Securities and Exchange Commission
Regulated stock market and prevented fraud.
Bank failures (why?/what happened to the money?)
Know the entire political spectrum
Liberal, FDR, Democrat (left) moderate (middle) Republican, Hoover, Conservative (right)
(man of steal) the new soviet dictator in 1926.
Nationalist and Anti-Communist leader. Economically depressed post ww2 Germany he argued his people needed more lebenstraum.
Britain, France, Italy, and Germany met at Munich to decide Czechoslovakia's fate. Britain and France agreed to Hitler's demands called appeasement: giving in to an aggressor to avoid further conflict.
November 8, 1938. "Night of the Broken Glass"- Gangs of Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, business and synagogues.
Plan to jail or kill all undesirables in Germany.
1931, a resource rich province in China. Japanese invasion.
Neutrality acts (why?)
Law passed to limit U.S involvement in future wars
Allied Powers (what countries?)
Britain, France, Russia, and United States.
Axis Powers (what countries?)
Germany, Japan, and Italy.
A surprise attack from Japan on December 7th, 1941. Japan sank 4 of 8 battleships, 3 destroyers, and destroyed 160 aircraft. The attack killed 2,403 Americans, another 1,178 were injured.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American invasion of North Africa began under command of General known as Operation Torch. Selected to command the invasion of D-Day
June 6th, 1944. Its success marked the beginning of the end for Nazis Germany. Operation Overload was the code name for the planned invasion of France by the Allies. Eisenhower was selected to command the invasion. Invasion took place in Normandy.
It was a code name for the American program of building an atomic bomb.
Harry Truman (decision to drop bomb?)
(1) it would save American lives. (2) It justified the cost of building it. (3) To intimidate the USSR.
Desegregation of military (who did it? why?)
President Harry Truman signed an executive order to the fight for African Americans to fight alongside white troops.
Japanese Interment (why?)
Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in internment camps because of their fear for another attack by the Japanese.
An atomic bomb was dropped on August 6th, 1945 one of Japan's important industrial cities. Truman did whatever he needed to save American lives. The bombing hastened the end of World War. On August 9th, 1945 US dropped an atomic bomb killing 35,000-74,000 people.
The IMT tried German leaders of committing war crimes. The Japanese emperor was not indicted and still in power.
Navajo Code Talkers
A group of Native Americans who served in the United States Marine Corps during World War II.
Gave billions to W. Europe for economic aide.
Gave $400 million to Greece and Turkey. Policy world-wide.
Long-term plan to contain the spread of Communism by use of diplomacy and economic aid.
Berlin Airlift/Blockade (why USSR did it?)
Becomes symbol of U.S determination to stand by a divided Berlin.
Korean War (cause/outcome?)
Korea divided at the 38th parallel after WWII. Soviets controlled North and U.S controlled South. Hoping to avoid war Berlin Airlift begins.
Republican who led crusade against communists in the U.S. government. Senate investigations that were based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears that damaged reputations with vague and unfounded charges.
A list of people or products viewed with suspicion or disapproval.
American citizens executed for conspiracy to commit espionage, relating to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. NY couple Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.
Gave loans to veterans for college, business, and buying loans. This gave veterans purchasing powers.
Baby Boom (causes?)
1945-1961, 65 million children were born.
-Pregnancy and parenthood were popular
Growth of Suburbs/Conformity
Cookie cutter suburban track homes= 85% of new homes
Levittown, New York. Conformity is the key (doing what everyone does).
Role of women in the 1950's on television and at work
he perfect mother was supposed to stay
home and nurture. A diligent housewife had dinner on the table precisely at the moment her husband arrived from work. A wife was a "good" wife only if she carried out her man's every order and agreed with him on everything. Even if she wanted to voice an opinion, he would not allow it.
"Keeping up with the Jones"
Is an idiom in many parts of the English-speaking world referring to the comparison to one's neighbor as a benchmark for social class or the accumulation of material goods.
Election of 1960 (debate/outcome of election)
First televised debate. Nixon won on radio and Kennedy won on television.
"My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country" meaning citizens should get interactive with activities and get involved.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets agree to remove missiles. U.S promises to never invade Cuba, upsetting manu Cuban-Americans and hard care anti-communists. *Cuban missile crisis is Kennedy's biggest foreign policy triumph.
Bay of Pigs Invasion (goal?/outcome?)
April 17, 1961
Invasion is a failure and Kennedy looks weak.
Kennedy accepts blame publicly, but is very upset at the CIA.
Warren Commission (conclusion)
Concluded that alleged gunman Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone in assassinating America's 35th president, and that there was no conspiracy, either domestic involved
Lee Harvey Oswald
The sniper who assassinated John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States
Miranda v. Arizona
Must be informed of rights when arrested.
Why JFK supported deficit spendings
Dallas, Texas. one rifle, 3 bullets.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Established the separate but equal clause
Brown vs. Board of Education
Overturned plessy decision separate but equal is unnerenty unequal *souther manifesto signed to resist brown decision. Desegregate public schools (1954)
Malcolm X ("x" stands for what)
Stands for unknown last, spent 6 years in prison
Little Rock Crisis (Eisenhower's decision)
Try to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. *Eisenhower has to use U.S Army to enforce segregation.
Group of white and African Americans who traveled on buses into the South to draw attention to the South's refusal to integrate bus terminals. They were often met by hostile mobs & violence.
Martin Luther King (SCLC)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
-Encouraged voting right
-Predominantly Baptist minister
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
-led by Ella Baker
-focused on voter registration
March on Washington DC/ "I Have a Dream"
August 28, 1963, organized to promote the passage of civil rights legislation of congress.
"Black Power" movement
African Americans who became more assertive and militant in their approach to Civil Rights.
Rosa Parks/Montgomery Bus Boycott
She refuses to give up her seat in Montgomery Alabama for a white person. For 381 days AA used bus boycott. 1956 supreme court outlawed bus segregation.
Leader of SNCC who became disenfranchised with SNCC
De facto/De jure Segregation
1. Segregation by custom or tradition often voluntarily
2. Legal forms of segregation that existed as a result of plessy vs. ferguson
Goals/accomplishments of CRM up until 1965
Segregation is now illegal, AA have equal voting rights
Effects of CRM on other minority groups
Indian civil rights act, guaranteed reservation the full protection of Bill of Rights
Known the events that took place in 1968 that made it a "very bad year"
-Robert Kennedy assassinated
-My Lai Massacre
-War powers Act
-The Vietnam War ends
-Fall of Saigon
1945; Divided Vietnam at 17th parallel North (communist) South (democracy)
If Vietnam falls, entire Indochina Peninsula would fall
Ho Chi Minh
Establishes the Vietminh (communist group) to overthrow the French
Dien Bien Phu
1954; French defeat at city
Ngo Dinh Diem
United States supports South Vietnam at..
-1693 he was assassinated
Vietcong (who were they?/tactics)
South Vietnamese communist supporters
Ho Chi Minh Trail
"Working Class War"
-80% of soldiers in Vietnam were from lower social economic status.
-Selective Service System required all men to register at 18, and would draft 18-26
Tet Offensive (impact on American People/Media)
Massive surprise attack by N. Vietnamese and Vietcong on Jan. 30, 1968
-Result: The North suffered a huge loss military, but it was a major political victory.
Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution
Gives President Johnson authority to fight Vietnam War.
U.S. Weapons including napalm and Agent Orange
African Americans in Vietnam
Served in disproportionate number's in combat ground troops.
-highest casualty rate in Vietnam
-Suffered from racism
*Segregated units and inability to rise in rank
Operation Rolling Thunder
Draft Manipulation (how?)
1. Medical deferments
2. College deferments
3. National guard/coast
4. Conscientious objector
5. more to a more leniet draft board
Nixon policy of Vietnamization
My Lai Massacre
Invasion of Cambodia
Democratic national Convention 1968
The fall of Saigon/Ho Chi Minh City
War Powers Act (what was the major events that led to its passage?)
Fate of Vietnam after U.S leaves?
Treatment of vets upon return
Counterculture (members, beliefs, activities/attitudes, goals, impact on art, music)
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