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97 terms

A&P II Final

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The principle venous drainage of the thoracic organ is accomplished by way of
the azygos system
From superior to inferior, the major branches branches of the abdominal aorta are
celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric arteries and common iliac arteries
Blood filters through the hepatic sinusoids exists the liver via the hepatic vein. T or F
T
There are no ___ in humans
R & L brachocephelic arteries
Arterial flow to the lower limb comes from the external iliac artery. T or F
T
The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric and splenic veins. T or F
F
The lung receives a systemic blood supply by way of
bronchiole arteries
The cardiac electrical conducting system includes all the following except
e.) C & D (fossa ovalis and tendious cords)
To get from the L atrium to the L ventricle, blood flows through
mitral valve
A heart rate of 45 bpm & absence of P wave suggest
damage of SA node
An enlarge R wave suggest
ventricular hyperthrophy
There is/are ____ pulmonary veins emptying into the right atrium
no
The atria contract during
PQ segments
Cardiac muscle does not exhibit tetanus because it has
a long absolute refractory period
The coronary blood vessel are part of ___ circuit of the circulatory system
cardiovascular
The blood remains in the ventricle after the ventricle ejection is
end systolic volume
Drugs that increase the heart rate have a ___ effect
positive chronotropic
The contraction of any heart chamber is called
systole
The pacemaker membrane potential starts about
-50 mV
During the action potential of the cardiocyte the " Plateu" phase represents
calcium entering through through slow Calcium channels
The blood supply of the myocardium is the coronary circulation. T or F
T
There are no valves at the point where venous blood flows into the atria. T or F
T
If all nerves (autonomic nervous system) of the heart rate were severed, the heart would stop beating. T or F
F
Blood leaves the L ventricle through the pulmonary valve. T or F
F
Pulmonary edema results from L ventricle failure. T or F
T
The sarcoplasic reticulum of the cardiocyte is more developed than in the skeletal muscle. T or F
F
The vagus nerve fibers reduce the heart rate. T or F
T
The opening into the pulmonary trunk and aorta are regulated by
semilunar valves
Plasma solutes enter the
fenestrated capillaries
The wall of the following blood vessel has 3 layers (tunica, tunica media & tunica intern) except
capillaries
Caratid sinuses are ___ that respond to change in blood pressure.
baroreceptors
The pericytes are cells that lie external to ___ of ____ capillaries and it is thought that they can ___ and regulate blood flow
endothelium/ continuous / contract
The sinusoids are __ capillaries in the ___
discontinuous/ liver and bone marrow
Which of the following route belong to the circulatory system
all of the above
A person with a systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg & a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg would have a pulse pressure of
40mmHg
Which of the following agents have positive chronotropic effect in the heart
E.) a & d (epinephrine, norepinephrine & thyroid hormone)
A blood vessel adapted to withstand a high pulse pressure would be expected to have
an elastic tunica media
In some cases a blood cell may pass through two capillaries beds in a single trip from L ventricle to right atrium. T or F
T
Arteries have a series of valve that ensure a one-way flow of blood. T or F
F
In the baroflex, a drop in arterial blood pressure triggers a corrective vasodilation. of the systemic blood vessels. T or F
F
Metarterioles link arterioles with capillaries. T or F
T
Veins are classified as conducting, distributing and resistance. T or F
F
Capillaries are the primary point of fluid exchange and resistance. T or F
T
Venous sinuses are blood spaces with large lumens, thin walls and no muscle. T or F
T
Blood flows away from the heart in ___ and back to the heart in ____
Arteries/ veins
At rest about 54% of the blood is found in
Veins
The baroreceptors & chemoreceptors are sensory structures located in
Aortic arch
Cardiac output is
e.) A, B & D are correct
The afterload is determined by
arterial blood pressure opposing ventrical ejection
The pericardium fluid is found between
the parietal and visceral membrane
Cardiac muscle share this feature with skeletal muscle
a. cardiac muscle fibers have striation
In people who stand long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbsand that may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
failure of the venous valves
Vasomotion (contraction & dilutions) is associated with the presence of
Smooth muscle in the tunica media
Arteries are sometimes called the ___ vessels of the cardiovascular system
resistance
Atrial depolarization begans during
P wave
___ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart
parietal pericardium
This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste
urea
Which organ system does not excrete waste
cardiovascular system
Which is not a function of the kidney
d. release waste into the bloodstream
Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?
collecting duct
The innermost connecting tissue layer protecting the kidneys and assisting in slaving off infection
fibrouse capsule
A renal pyramid voids urine into
minor calyx
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occur in the
glomerulus
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein
D.) interlobular v. > arcuate v. > interlobular v. > renal v.
Which is primarily responsible for generating the salinity gradient of the renal medulla
nephron loop
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
proximal convulated tubule
The PCT is not subject to hormonal influence. T or F
F
Sodium is the most abundant solute in the urine. T or F
F
Urea is the most abundant solute in the urine. T or F
T
Micturition depends on contraction of the detrusor muscle. T or F
T
The normal yellow color of the urine is due to the presence of bilirubin in urine. T or F
F
The internal urethral sphincters is not composed of smooth muscle. T or F
F
Somatic motor fibers via the pudential nerve innervate the external urethral sphincter. T or F
T
The distal position of the collecting duct is permeable to NaCl. T or F
F
A glomerulus and glomerular capsule make up one
renal corpuscle
___ is the ability of a nephron to adjust to CFR independently of another hormonal influence
renal autoregulation
A drop in blood pressure causes the kidneys to secrete ___ within ____
renin / juxtaglomerular cells
Atrial natriurectic peptide (ANP)
A. increases salt and water excretion antagonizing aldosterone and ADH
Glomerural Filtration
D. a & b are correct ( is driven by the high blood hydrostatic pressure within the glomerular capillaries / it's rate is typically about 105/mL mm in women
Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity. T or F
F
In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal. T or F
T
Fluid intake is regulated by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors. T or F
T
The kidney secret ADH in responce to dehydration. T or F
F
Hypovolemia refers to a reduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity. T or F
T
Aldosteron promotes potassium excretion. T or F
T
Hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus. T or F
F
Inquiries that rupture a lot of cells tend to elevate the K+concentration of the ECF. T or F
T
PTH hormones promote calcium & phosphate reabsorption by the kidney.
T or F
F
The body compensates for respiratory acidosis by increasing the respiratory rate. T or F
T
A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one. T or F
F
Most body water comes from ___, whereas most body water is lost via ___
drinking / urine
This is the principle cation of the ECF
sodium
Aldosterone receptors are found on cells of
distal convulated tubule
This is the most abundant cation of the ICF
Potassium
These scenerios are related with hyperkalemia except
resting membrane potential is more negative
Tubular secretion of hydrogen is directly linked for
tubular reabsorption of Na+
Which of the following statements is correctly released by the Acid P hormone
e. all of the above