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a conditional release of inmates by a parole board prior to the expiration of their sentence.

mark system

credits against a sentence that allowed inmates to be released once they earned the required level of marks through work and good behavior

Penal Stage

first stage of the mark system which emphasized punishment and included solitary confinement and a diet of bread and water

Associated Stage

second stage of the mark system which allowed inmates to associate and begin to earn marks through work, program participation, and good behavior. Poor behavior resulted in an increase in the number of marks required for release.

Social stage

third stage of the mark system which inmates were grouped and held jointly responsible for the conduct of each other, as a way to begin the process of living responsibly in society.

Ticket of leave

fourth stage of the mark system which prisoners earning the required level of marks received a conditional pardon and were released to the community


This is when the idea of rewarding good behavior with reductions in the time served was initiated.

David Fogel 1975

liberal former correctional official; argued that treatment in prison was a myth, and parole board discretion was unpredictable and unfair to inmates.

Justice model

proposed by Fogel, this suggested:
- A return to flat, determinate sentences, with procedural rules to limit sentencing discretion
- The elimination of parole boards and parole agencies
- Making all treatment programs strictly voluntary


in 1977, the use of parole reached its peak as more than ___ of prisoners were released on discretionary parole

Use of discretionary parole

or release from prison to community supervision by the decision of a parole board, after completing the minimum portion of an indeterminate sentence. Parolees are required to meet certain conditions as a stipulation of their release and are subject to being returned to prison if they violate the conditions or commit another offense

Supervised mandatory release

(mandatory parole): a type of release in which inmates serve a determinate sentence and then are released, but with a period of supervision to follow.

Unconditional mandatory release

(expiration of sentence): a form of release in which inmates serve the full portion of their sentence and have no supervision after release from prison

Three major steps in the sentencing and release process for discretionary parole

1) An indeterminate sentence with a minimum time to serve before parole eligibility and a maximum term to be served if not paroled
2) Consideration of release by a parole board authorized to conditionally release offenders
3)Supervision in the community under specific conditions

Greenholz v. Inmates of the Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complex

the U.S. Supreme Court determined that parole was legally considered a privilege and not a right, and full due-process rights need not be afforded.

the release decision and post release supervision

the two major functions of parole

Presumptive parole date

a date the inmate can expect to be released on parole, even if it is several years later than the hearing

Standard conditions

type of parole condition which is applicable to all parolees

Special conditions

type of parole condition which pertains to a particular parolee


"The Corrections Yearbook" reports a total of ______ parolees successfully terminated from supervision during 2001.

Technical violations

type of parole violation of a standard or special condition of parole

new-crime violations

type of parole violation when a conviction of a new crime occurs


failure to follow conditions of parole supervision. If the offender has committed a new crime, the officer usually receives a notice of arrest and charges from the local police and prosecutor

Morrissey v. Brewer

U.S. Supreme Court decision that once parole is granted, a liberty interest is created, and offenders must have certain due process to revoke that liberty

The limited due process that must be followed in the revocation process includes:

-The parolee is provided advance written notice of the alleged violation and the evidence of the violation
- The parolee must have the opportunity to attend the hearing and present witnesses and documentary evidence
-The parolee has the right to confront and cross-examine adverse witnesses.
- A neutral and detached body must hold the hearing
- The parolee must receive a written decision of the hearing body, as well as the evidence relied upon to revoke the parole.


the first execution in America occurred in ____.

Tennessee; 1838

_____ was the first state to end mandatory death penalty in _____

New York; 1834

_____ was the first state to end public executions in ______.


this is when New York became the first state to stop hanging offenders and introducing a new method of execution-the electric chair.


this is when the lethal gas execution was introduced

Wilkerson v. Utah (1878)

decided that death by firing squad was not cruel and unusual punishment

In re Kemmler (1890)

decided that the electric chair was not cruel and unusual punishment since it produced an instantaneous and painless death

Powell v. Alabama (1932)

the Supreme Court overturned the death sentence of seven black boys accused of raping two white women b/c the defendants weren't given reasonable time and opportunity to secure counsel in their defense

Francis v. Resweber (1947)

the Supreme Court addressed the issue of the constitutionality of being executed twice. They found that a mechanical failure did not make a subsequent second attempt a violation of the Eighth Amendment

Trop v. Dulles (1958)

the Supreme Court stated that a particular method of execution must meet the evolving standards of decency test in order to avoid being considered cruel and unusual punishment

Furman v. Georgia (1972)

the Supreme Courtconsidered whether the death penalty violated Eighth Amendment prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment. There was a period of 4 years where there was no death penalty. (1972-76)

Gregg v. Georgia (1976)

the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty, as applied under the new statutes.

Roper v. Simmons (2005)

the Supreme Court ruled that the imposition of the death penalty on juvenile offenders is unconstitutional


documented juvenile executions -> 2% of all executions in the history of the U.S.


First documented juvenile to be executed; Thomas Graunger, 16 years old

Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988)

the Supreme Court held that executions of offenders age 15 and younger at the time of their crimes are prohibited by the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Stanford v. Kentucky (1989)

the Supreme Court held that the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution does not prohibit the death penalty for crimes committed at ages 16 or 17.

Atkins v. Virginia (2002)

the Supreme Courtheld that the U.S constitution prohibits the death penalty for mentally retarded offenders, based upon reasoning closely analogous to juvenile offenders

In re Stanford (2002)

the Supreme Court decided not to take the case, over a strong dissent by Justice Stevens, they not only wanted to revisit the juvenile death penalty issue, but were ready to declare it unconstitutional and to "put an end to this shameful practice."

Simmons v. Roper (2003)

simmons was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to death by a state court. He appealed his sentence on the grounds that he was seventeen at the time he committed the murder, and that a death sentence constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment.

Texas, Miss, Alabama

3 states with the death penalty

New Jersey, New York, New Mexico

3 states without the death penalty


Texas has ___ # of inmates on death row


Louisiana has ___ # of inmates on death row


Mississippi has ___ # of inmates on death row


___% of women in prison are 25-45 years old.


___% of women in prison serving for property offenses


___% of women in prison serving for drug-related offenses


___% of women in prison serving for public-order offenses


women prisoners receive ____ maximum sentences than do men

192; 245

the average prison sentence for murder is ____ months for women and ____ months for men


main drug use of choice prior to incarceration which is higher among female than among male state and federal prisoners.

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