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Plants are autotrophic

Why are plants able to serve as the base of food chains, but animals are not able to do so?


Who is often referred to as the "father of botany"?


According to the Doctrine of Signatures, walnuts should be used to treat...


The binomial system of nomenclature of assigning scientific names was begun by...

Populus tremuloides

The plant species that we commonly call "aspen" is widespread in the northern hemisphere, and has leaves that commonly tremble in the wind. Which of the following is its correct scientific name? (Note: You should be able to determine this based solely upon the format of the name!)


Prokaryotic cells contain...

plasma membrane

A protoplast consists of two parts, the cytoplasm and the...

ribosomes and a loop of DNA

Plastids and mitochondria both contain...

the movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration

Diffusion is defined as...


The chemical that is present in primary cell walls and which makes the primary wall pliable or "stretchable" is...

facilitated diffusion

The movement of a large polar molecule across a cellular membrane from the side with a higher concentration is called...

active transport

Which of the following is "costly" to cells because it requires an expenditure of energy?


If Golgi body vesicles that have formed in the cytoplasm move to the plasma membrane and dump their contents to the outside, what occurred?

growth in plants is closed (or determinate) and localized.

When comparing growth in plants with growth in animals...


Replication of DNA takes place during...

middle lamella

In a plant, the cell walls of adjacent cells are "glued" together by a region known as the...


The chemical that usually present in secondary cell walls and that makes the secondary wall hard and rigid is...


The cytoplasm of a plant cell is connected to cytoplasm of adjacent cells by little channels called...


A woody plant with more than one main stem coming out of the ground is called a...


A plant that lives for only one growing season, reproduces, and then dies is called an...


In a typical cell, the organelle that serves as the site of protein synthesis is the...


The term "cell" (as used in biology) was coined by ______, who observed a piece of cork with a simple microscope.


The part of a cell wall that is formed after a cell has stopped growing in size is called the ______ wall.


In plant cells, the organelle in which the reactions of photosynthesis take place is the...


The organelle that serves as the "powerhouse" of the cell (where food is broken down to provide energy) is the...


The diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane is called...


The evolutionary origin of plastids and mitochondria is explained by the______ Theory.


A ______ is a growth region in a plant, where cells divide and expand.


All membranes in a cell are made of two main types of chemicals, proteins and...


Organic compounds always contain the element...


Flagella, cilia, spindle fibers, and cell plate fibers are all made of ______ that aggregate together.


The main chemical found in plant cell walls is ______, which forms long fibers.


The transporter proteins that carry out active transport are called...

CO2 and O2

When a plant carries out photosynthesis, what two chemical compounds are taken in by the plant and used as reactants?

O2 and C6H12O6

What two chemical compounds are produced/made/given off as products of photosynthesis?

Sunlight or the Sun

what provides the energy that "drives" the reactions of photosynthesis? (In other words, where does the energy come from or originate?)

Cell wall, chloroplasts, and a vacuole

List three structures or features of a cell that, if present, would indicate to you that the cells were from a plant and not from an animal.


All cellular membranes are composed of proteins embedded in two layers of...

amino acids

Proteins are polymers of...


Nucleic acids are polymers of...

secondary structure

The "alpha helix" of a protein molecule constitutes its...

Watson and Crick

Who "discovered" and first described the structure of the DNA molecule?


During RNA splicing, the non-coding regions that are removed from the molecule are called...

asexual reporduction

Cloning, which is common in plants, is an example of...

the enzymes present in the cell

The chemical reactions that take place in a plant cell will be determined by...


Replication of DNA occurs during...

inherited traits are controlled by genes that occur in pairs

According to Mendel's Law of Unit Characters,


If an organism has 2 identical alleles (e.g., TT) for a genetic trait, it is said to be...

Prophase I

During which phase of meiosis does crossing-over take place?

the electron transport chain

during aerobic respiration, the majority if the ATP molecules produced are made during the set of reactions called...

matrix of the mitochondria

The reactions of the Krebs Cycle take place in/on the...

grana of the chloroplast

The light reactions of photosynthesis take place in/on the...

plants carry out photosynthesis

Plants (and not animals) are able to serve as the base of food chains because...

Priestley and Ingenhousz

Who used "bell jar" experiments to demonstrate that plants "revitalize" air, i.e, they carry out gas exchange?

NADPred and ATP

In photosynthesis, what compounds are produced in the light reactions and then are used to "drive" the dark reactions?

mesophyll cells

In C4 plants, the initial (i.e., first) fixation of CO2 (to form a C4 compound) occurs in...

respiration by all organisms (including both plants and animals) and combustion of fossil fuels

In the global carbon cycle, processes that add CO2 to the atmosphere include...


In a polypeptide chain, adjacent amino acids are linked together by special bonds called ______ bonds.


Diploid cells/nuclei are transformed into haploid cells/nuclei by the process of...


The compound that serves as direct source of usable energy in cells is...


Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration begin with the set of reactions called...


Suppose one strand of DNA molecule contains the base sequence GCT; the base sequence directly across from it in the other strand will be...


the folding of a protein helix onto itself to form a very specific 3-D shape is referred to as the ______ structure of the protein.


Suppose RNA is being made along a DNA molecule; if the DNA molecule contains the base sequence ATG, the corresponding base sequence of the RNA will be...


The nitrogenous base that is present in RNA but not in DNA is...


When DNA replicates, the 2 strands are first "unzipped" (separated) by an enzyme called...


A protein that acts as a catalyst in a chemical reaction is called an...


Aristole's mistaken belief that plants are "soil-eaters" was refuted by ____, who experimented with willows and water.


A piece/segment of a DNA molecule (or of a chromosome) that contains the code for 1 protein molecule is called a...

syngamy (fertilization)

Sexual reproduction always involves a regular alternation between the processes of meiosis and...


Plants (such as cacti) that open their stomata and take in CO2 only at night carry out a special type of photosynthesis called...


List one example of each carbohydrate....


What type of chemical reaction takes place when monosaccharides are linked together to form a disaccharide or a polysaccharide?


What type of chemical reaction occurs to break apart a polysaccharide into its constitute monosaccharides?

companion cells

What cell type would never be found in xylem tissue?


What cell type is not found in tissues of the ground tissue system?

only roots

What part of the plant will usually exhibit positive gravitropism?

move or migrate to the shady side of them.

When auxin interacts with light to cause bending of shoot, light causes auxin to...


The cells produced to the inside by the cork cambium will develop into...

netted venation

Name a characteristic of the leaves of a dicot?

endodermis of the root

Where would you expect to find the Casparian strip?

auxin increases

What correctly describes the hormonal changes that take place in trees during the autumn, triggering the abscission of leaves...

axillary buds

To tell whether a plant has simple or compound leaves, one must note the presence and position of...


2,4-D is a growth regulator that is chemically similar/related to the plant hormone...

procambium and parenchyma

In a stem, the vascular cambium typically develops from...


A gardener notices that the marigolds she planted in front of her prized mutant dwarf sweet peas are growing taller than she expected and are obscuring her view of the sweet peas. She can solve this problem and get her sweet peas to grow taller by spraying the sweet peas with...

evaporation of water from the leaves causes a suction which pulls water up through tracheids and vessel members

What usually causes water to move in a plant?


The "active" form of phytochrome (the form whose level/amount acts as a "switch" to trigger a change) is called....

from regions called sources to regions called sinks

What is the normal direction in the movement of food within a plant?

axillary buds on the stem will grow out to form branches as the auxin level in the stem decreases

Suppose a deer comes along and eats the shoot tip of a dicot plant that is growing with an unbranched stem. What is the likely result?

the length of the nighttime period (i.e., uninterrupted darkness)

When plants use phytochrome to determine what time of year it is, what does the phytochrome actually measure?


When insectivorous plants capture insects with their modified leaves, they use the insects primarily as a source of...

Sticking out of the trunk 2 meters above the ground

Suppose that the main axis or trunk of a pine tree increases in height by 20 centimeters per year. You pound a 9-inch nail part-way into the trunk at a height of 2 meters above the ground. so that 3 inches of the nail sticks out from the trunk. If you return to the tree 5 years later, where would you expect to find the nail?


In a woody stem, wood that contains living parenchyma cells and that functions in moving water is called...


A plant like cover that responds to photoperiod and blooms in the middle of the summer is called a _________ plant.


Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma tissues belong to the ________ Tissue System.


Primary growth in plants is growth that takes place from ________ meristems.


Secondary growth in plants is growth that takes place from ______ meristems.


The tissue we commonly call "wood" is more technically called secondary...


A root that begins its development from stem or leaf tissue (rather than another root) is called an __________ root.


The experiments of Charles & Francis Darwin, Peter Boysen-Jensen, and Frits Went led to the discovery of the first-known plant hormone,...


In a woody stem, everything outside the vascular cambium is collectively called the...


The hormone that causes the gravitropic response of plant shoots is...


In a typical root, most of the water absorption occurs through epidermal outgrowths called root...


In a woody stem, water, minerals, and food all move sideways through lines of living cells called vascular...


The conversation of atmospheric nitrogen to a form that plants can use is called nitrogen....


The hormone that speeds up the ripening of fruit is...


Essential nutrients that are used relatively large amounts by plants are called...


The stalk of a leaf is called the...

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