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Although an exact count is not available, it is likely that the human brain has as many as
100 billion neurons.
Cephalization, the clustering of neurons and interneurons in the anterior part of the animal, is apparent in
In the human knee-jerk reflex, as the calf is raised from the vertical toward the horizontal, the muscles of the quadriceps (flexors on the ventral side of the thighs) and the muscles of the hamstring (extensors on the dorsal side of the thighs) are
excited and inhibited, respectively.
The stretch receptors of the sensory neurons in the human knee-jerk reflex are located in the
quadriceps, the flexor muscles on the ventral side of the thighs.
Choose the correct match of glial cell type and function.
astrocytesmetabolize neurotransmitters and modulate synaptic effectiveness
Myelinated neurons are especially abundant in the
white matter in the brain and the white matter in the spinal cord.
An amino acid neurotransmitter that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain is
gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA
Cerebrospinal fluid can be described as all of the following except
formed from layers of connective tissue.
The divisions of the nervous system that have antagonistic, or opposing, actions are
sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
Preparation for the fight-or-flight response includes activation of the ________ nervous system.
Exercise and emergency reactions include
increased activity in the sympathetic, and decreased activity in the parasympathetic branches.
Increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system leads to
relaxation of the airways in the lungs.
The activation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is associated with
resting and digesting.
In a cephalized invertebrate, the system that transmits "efferent" impulses from the anterior ganglion to distal segments is the
peripheral nervous system.
The system that modulates excitation and inhibition of smooth and cardiac muscles of the digestive, cardiovascular, and excretory systems is the
autonomic nervous system.
Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are human activities associated with increased activity in the
Central coordination of vertebrate biological rhythms in physiology and behavior reside in the
The endogenous nature of biological rhythms is based on the observations that animals isolated from light and dark cues
continue to have cycles of approximately 24 hours' duration; some more rapid, some slower.
Bottlenose dolphins breathe air but can sleep in the ocean because
they alternate which half of their brains is asleep and which half is awake.
The limbic system in the central nervous system sustains many vegetative functions in mammals and is closely associated with structures that process cues about
Increases and decreases of the heart rate result from changes in the activity of the
The regulatory centers for the respiratory and circulatory systems are found in the
Which processes in animals are regulated by circadian rhythms?
sleep cycles, hormone release, and sex drive
In mammals, advanced cognition is usually correlated with a large and very convoluted neocortex, but birds are capable of sophisticated cognition because they have
a pallium with neurons clustered into nuclei.
Which of the following shows a brain structure correctly paired with one of its primary functions?
frontal lobedecision making
If you were writing an essay, the part of your brain that would be actively involved in this task is the
temporal and frontal lobes
Our understanding of mental illness has been most advanced by discoveries involving
the chemicals involved in brain communications.
Failure of an embryonic neuron to establish a synaptic connection to another cell
results in the apoptosis of that neuron.
Learning a new language during adulthood alters activity in the brain's language processing locations by
altering synaptic effectiveness in these locations.
Bipolar disorder is similar to schizophrenia in that researchers suspect that both include trouble with the neurotransmitter
Imagine you are resting comfortably on a sofa after dinner. This could be described as a state with
decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and increased activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems.
When Phineas Gage had a metal rod driven into his frontal lobe, or when someone had a frontal lobotomy, they would
have greatly altered emotional responses.
Which of the following structures or regions is incorrectly paired with its function?
limbic system motor control of speech
After suffering a stroke, a patient can see objects anywhere in front of him but pays attention only to objects in his right field of vision. When asked to describe these objects, he has difficulty judging their size and distance. What part of the brain was likely damaged by the stroke?
the right parietal lobe
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