The Tripartite Pact
a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940, which established the Axis Powers of World War II. The pact was signed by representatives of Nazi Germany (Adolf Hitler), Fascist Italy (foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano), and Imperial Japan (Japanese ambassador to Germany Saburo Kurusu).
an alignment (German,Italy and Japan) of great powers during the mid-20th century that fought World War II against the Allies.
Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler wanted to unify all the German-speaking areas of Europe under one government, Anschluss
The German name used in English in the first half of the 20th Century for the northern southwest and western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans. During the WWI Sudetenland experienced a rate of war deaths higher than most other German speaking areas of Austria-Hungary Thirty- four of each 1,000 habitants were killed.
An agreement permitting the Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. It was signed by Nazi Germany, France, UK, and Italy.
Prime minister of UK from May 1937-1940. Best known for his appeasement foreign policy and for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the Sudetenland to Germany.
Used by European democracies in 1930s who wished to avoid war with the dictatorships of Germany and Italy because of horrors of WWI.
an international treaty between two or more states/countries agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them and resolve their disputes through peaceful negotiations. The most famous non-aggression pact is the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, which lasted until the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.
September 1,1939- Poland
an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the start of World War II in Europe.ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.
a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it is the deadliest conflict in human history, resulting in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities. The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany, and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France
Hitler's armies smashed across the borders of the Netherlands and Belgium and streamed into the northern reaches of France. The German "Blitzkrieg" moved swiftly to the west and the south, splitting the British and French defenders, trapping the British army at Dunkirk and forcing its evacuation from continental Europe.
Dunkirk (May 1940)
In May 1940, during the Battle of France, the British Expeditionary Force in France aiding the French, was cut off from the rest of the French Army by the German advance.Encircled by the Germans they retreated to the area around the port of Dunkirk.
The London Blitz(Winter 1940-41)
the sustained strategic bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941. The city of London was bombed by the Luftwaffe for 76 consecutive nights and many towns and cities across the country followed.
Oil/ Scrap Metal Embargo (1940)
the japanese aggression in south east asia, america decides to stop trading oil and scrap metal to asia. as a result, japan secretly plans an attack on pearl harbor.
U.S.Neutrality Acts (37/39)
laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II.
Cash and Carry (1939)
policy requested by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at a special session of the United States Congress on September 21, 1939, as World War II was spreading throughout Europe. It replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1936. The revision allowed the sale of materiel to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation.
America First Committee
the foremost non-interventionist pressure group against theAmerican entry into World War II. Peaking at 800,000 members, it was likely the largest anti-warorganization in American history.
Destroyers for Bases (1940)
Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2, 1940, transferred fifty mothballeddestroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions.
Selective Service Act (1940)
the first peacetime conscription in United States history when President Franklin D. Rooseveltsigned it into law two days later. when the U.S. entered World War II, all men aged 18 to 45 were made liable for military service, and all men aged 18 to 65 were required to register.
the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, Free France, and otherAllied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945.
a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan).
The Big Three
The leaders of the three major Allies of World War II: Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.
Europe First Strategy
prescribed that the priority of effort should be given to the defeat of the Axis powers (principally Germany and Italy) in North Africa and Europe before mounting an all-out effort to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific and Asia.
Poland partly mobilized its troops on August 24, 1939, and fully mobilized on August 30, 1939, following the increased confrontations withGermany since March 1939.
General George Marshall
American militaryleader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Alliedvictory in World War II, Marshall served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
most famous for the Kaiser Shipyard in Richmond, California during World War II, adopting production techniques that built cargo ships on the average of one every 45 days. These ships became known as Liberty ships. He became world renowned when his teams built a ship in 4 days
((Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service)) a World War II-era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women.
The Double "V"-A. Philip Randolph
A campaign that was created to build black morale and head off radical action. "Victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad.Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced Franklin D. Roosevelt to desegregate production-plants for military supplies during World War II.
Executive Order "9066"
a United States presidential executive ordersigned and issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones.
((War Production Board)) established as a government agency on January 16, 1942 by executive order of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The purpose of the board was to regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States.
(( Office of Price Administration)) established within the Office for Emergency Management of the United States government by Executive Order 8875 on August 28, 1941. The functions of the OPA was originally to control money (price controls) and rents after the outbreak of World War II.
The President campaigned in favor of a strong United Nations, so his victory symbolized support for the nation's future participation in the international community.
the wartimemeeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime MinisterWinston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, in the Crimea.
Victory in Europe Day commemorates 8 May 1945, the date when the World War II Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies while in office; vice-president Harry Truman is sworn in as the 33rd President.
held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from July 16 to August 2 1945. The three nations were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and later, Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.
a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb (Hiroshima) during World War II.
Victory over Japan Day the day on which the Surrender of Japan occurred, effectively ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. August 14, 1945
((North Atlantic Treaty Organization)) an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
((Demilitarized zone)) an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more military powers (or alliances), where military activity is not permitted, usually by peace treaty, armistice, or other bilateral or multilateral agreement.
((Fair Employment Practices Committee)) implemented US Executive Order 8802, requiring that companies with government contracts not to discriminate on the basis of race or religion.
((National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)) an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909.
((Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)) one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
((Congress of Racial Equality )) a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.
(( Office of Economic Opportunity)) the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created as part ofUnited States President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society legislative agenda.