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65 terms

Anatomy & physiology chapter 1

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Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation.
False
We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
True
Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens.
False
Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke.
True
All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity.
True
The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy.
True
An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory.
False
Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past.
True
The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology.
False
Organs are made of tissues.
True
A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle).
False
Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things.
False
Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body's physiological variables gets out of balance.
False
Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tend to produce rapid change in the body
False
Anatomists over the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents.
True
Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________
palpation; percussion.
___________________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body, and is thus regarded as "the father of modern anatomy."
Vesalius
________________ wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era.
Galen
Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus?
sonography
The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that ___ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes.
Aristotle
The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called
inductive method
Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid-resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example of
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called
hypothesis.
The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensure
objective and reliable results.
______________ is a process that submits a scientist's ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published.
Peer review
Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge?
theory
The study of structure and function of cells is called
cytology
_______ established a code of ethics for physicians. He is considered the "father of medicine".
Hippocrates
A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n)
Placebo
Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the
control group.
A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called
evolution.
The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of
evolution
The principal theory of how evolution works is called
natural selection
Which of the following was an adaptation evolved in connection with human upright walking?
spinal and pelvic anatomy
Stereoscopic vision provides
depth perception
Humans are born before their nervous system have matured, which is traceable to A. their inability to regulate body temperature.
skeletal adaptations to bipedalism.
Our own species is called
Homo sapiens
Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees
arboreal
An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell
organ, organelles
This option lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest.
organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle
41. This option lists examples of body's structures from the simplest to the most complex
protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach
...42. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function.
tissue
Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology. A. comparative
reductionist
____________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying interactions of its parts. A. naturalism.
vitalism
____________ is the view that not everything about an organism can be understood or predicted from the knowledge of its components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Reductionism
The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four is an example of ____________ variation among organisms.
anatomical
________________ are the simplest body's structures considered alive.
cells
All of the following are human organ systems except
epidermal.
All of the following are organs except
digestive system
Metabolism is the sum of
anabolism and catabolism
We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called
homeostasis
When you exercise you generate excess heat and your body temperature rises. Blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and you lose heat. This exemplifies
negative feedback
When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example of
positive feedback
Which of the following is most likely to cause disease?
positive feedback
Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates release of the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates body cells to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. This reduces blood glucose concentration. This is an example of
negative feedback
The ____________ is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), under no environmental stress, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day; whereas the ________ is the same except for a weight of 58 kg (128 lb) and an intake of 2,000 kcal/day.
reference man, reference woman
The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________________
growth, differentiation
Three common components of a feedback loop are
a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an effector
Negative feedback loops are
homeostatic.
The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________.
below, above
The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of
an eponym
Hypercalcemia means
elevated calcium levels in blood
The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________ whereas the plural of appendix is ___________.
axillae; appendices.
The plural of villus (hair) is ____________ whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________
villi, diagnoses.
The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms
is called Terminologia Anatomica (TA)