150 terms

Psychology Final

medical doctors, can prescribe medication
reincarnation and recycling of knowledge
student of plato, tabula rasa, the birth of empiricism
rene descartes
positivism and 3 facts: i think therefore i am, all the stuff may or may not be there but the space holding it is there, motion- there is movement going on through space, introduces reflex
animals dont have a free will or immortal souls, there is the physical world and the mental world which is where souls come from
British Empiricists
John Locke and David Hume
born into the world knowing nothing, learn everything from experience
John Locke
pro democracy, everyone put their knowledge and wisdom together to come up with better ideas
David Hume
more into straight philosophy not politics, justice must be learned, causation is learned, some things are abstract and we cannot learn from experience
Immanuel Kant
notions that can't be learned (self, justice, causation), these notions make up the mental world
Wilhelm Wundt
the father of psychology, established psychology as experimental philosophy in Leipzig, psychology is the science of the mental world, structuralism, introspection
looking for the building blocks of consciousness, ran many experiments, tried to understand the mind by breaking it down into basic parts
looking within your own state of mind, required people to look inward and describe their own experiences
William James
the father of american psychology, american functionalism
Mary Witt Calkins
couldnt get a PhD at Harvard because she was a woman, first female president of the American Psychology Association
John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner
Behaviorist Manifesto
psychology should be about behavior, not the mind
behavior is what happens and what people do in the world, dont care about mental world; the only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate behavior
John Watson
hired at John Hopkins, later fired for sex scandal, created modern advertising
discovered operant conditioning
Charles Darwin
variation occurs naturally and randomly
London's Bethlehem or Bedlam
earliest attempt to treat mental illnesses, first institution
Franz Anton Mesmer
hypnosis or "mesmerism", started trying to treat people, moved to paris and turned it into a parlor game and became an entertainer
Jean Martin Charcot
his theory was that mesmerism could be used in treatment, thought only women who did bad things could get hysteria and it was a uterus disease, later realized that girls were faking it
Sigmund Freud
bad at hypnotizing, developed the relaxed setting for a psychology room, dimmed lights, comfy couch, had 2 theories: the patients, who were often daughters of aristocracy, were abused and the memories represented wishes or fantasies
Freud's Theoretical Personality Structures
id, ego, and superego
the unconscious and unrepentant seeker of pleasure; the portion of the personality that is governed by inborn instinctual drives, particularly those related to sex and aggression; the pleasure principle.. "I want"
the executive that acts in accordance with reality; reality principle.. cant always get what you want;
the moral seeker of ideal behavior; the portion of personality that motivates people to act in an ideal fashion; conscience, right vs wrong, guilt, idealistic principle.. always act in a proper and ideal fashion as defined by parents and culture
the oral stage
birth - 18 months, weaning from the breast, signs: eating, smoking, talking, gullible, sarcastic
anal stage
2-3 years, signs: toilet training; anal retentive: tidy, organized, forced to potty train; anal expressive: creative, permissive, not forced at all
phallic stage
3-6 years, for boys: want mothers full attention, oedipus complex: become erotically attracted to mother, resent father; for girls: blames mother for not giving her a penis, electra complex: attracted to father, wants to share father's penis by having sex with him
5- puberty, sexual feelings are largely suppressed, children direct attention to social concerns
The genital stage
sexuality reawakens, but in appropriate way, adolescence- adulthood, heterosexual relationships outside of the family
when there's conflict among the id, ego, and superego, unpleasant feeling of dread, unpleasant and defense mechanisms get rid of it, happens when you are fixated in a stage
designed to defeat defense mechanisms and deal with the causes of conflict, invented by Freud, let people feel more comfortable so that people let down their defense mechanisms to think more clearly
Defense Mechanisms
denial, repression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, displacement, sublimation
it's not happening; refuse to believe information that leads to anxiety
it didn't happen, past tense denial, most important weapon: keeps anxiety-producing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
im not like that, you are; seeing your flaws in other people; unacceptable wishes or feelings that are attributed to others
reaction formation
im not like that, im the opposite of that; someone goes from one extreme to the other; you behave in a way that is counter to how you feel
there are good reasons why im like that; explaining and justifying your behaviors; explanations are created to deal with threatening thoughts
i need to go work out; putting negative feelings and energy into physical exertion
im going to write a revolutionary poem; emotional exertion
Carl Jung
didn't like that Freud was trying to explain individual behaviors and minds but that most of what we do happens in the collective unconscious
collective unconscious
the notion that certain kinds of universal symbols and ideas are present in the unconscious of all people and accumulates over a lifetime
Alfred Adler
didnt like how negative Freud was, inferiority complex- a concept that motivates a great deal of human behavior, our natural drive for superiority that explains motivation
Karen Horney
thinks that Freud's ideas on sexism mostly apply to men, doesn't believe in penis envy and that women are dissatisfied with their sex
normal distribution
correlation coefficient (r)
measures the strength of a relationship, basic range 0-1, 0 = no relationship between variables, 1= perfect relationship, negative correlations the range is really -1-1, correlation doesn't imply causation
independent variable
the aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment, must consist of 2+ conditions
dependent variable
behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment, does watching violent programs (independent) increase violence (dependent)?
the brain
100 billion cells (out of 60 trillion) called neurons
bundles of axons that make up neural "transmission cables"
all cells fired same way, send electro-chemical message to next neuron, distinguished only by pathway, narrow and wide
input either from outside world or another neuron, output goes to either another neuron or makes a muscle contract
sensory neuron
receives input from outside world and goes to another neuron
receives input from another neuron and send output to another neuron
motor neuron
receives input from another neuron and sends it to a muscle
each neuron can have up to this many dendrites
at rest, a neuron has a slight _______ charge
the differentiation that the inside of a neuron is negative, outside is positive
the act of a neuron firing, when a cell gets fired, a sodium or potassium channel opened and allowed some positive charge to come in which let the neuron not be so negatively charged
a fatty substance; purpose is to insulate axons within their neuron; insufficient myelin is huntington's disease
terminal button
the end of the neuron
people with brain damage
this problem is found in Wernicke's area and Broca's area
motor centers
efferent nerve pathways carry central nervous system messages outward to the muscles and glands
sensory centers
information travels to the brain and spinal cord through afferent nerve pathways
electroencephalograph (EEG)
monitor the gross electrical activity in the brain; better at measuring at the surface (the cortex)
Computerized tomography scan (CT)
absorbed X-rays indicate location of matter in the head; measures density of matter; highly focused X-rays construct detailed anatomical maps of the living brain
Positron emission tomography (PET)
radioactive stuff in blood indicates blood flow; drink radioactive stuff, it gets in blood stream, and shows up on PET, blood goes where the neural activity is happening, measures how radioactive substances are absorbed in the brain, it can be used to detect how specific tasks activate different areas of the living brain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
magnetic properties of iron in blood; uses magnetic fields and radio wave pulses to construct detailed, 3D images of the brain; functional means a video clip of it not just picture, depend on blood flow directly having iron in hemoglobin (oxygen attaches to the iron in it, makes blood red), all the iron cells point to the magnet; cant do it you have metal in your body; map changes in blood oxygen use as a function of task activity
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
electrical current in neurons creates magnetic field; measure magnetic fields coming off your head
Central Nervous System
consists of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
somatic: 5 bodily senses, everything we are aware of; autonomic: happens automatically, breathing, heart rate, parasympathetic (calming), sympathetic (arousing)
primitive part of the brain that sits at the juncture point where the brain and spinal cord merge, medulla and pons, reticular formation, cerebellum
Medulla and pons
basic life support, heart rate, breathing, if damaged, will need a lot of help, luckily harder to damage because of location
reticular formation
sleep and consciousness, well protected but if damaged may cause coma
coordination of complex motor skills, looks like cauliflower
structures serve as neural relay stations and may help coordinate reactions to sensory events, superior and inferior colliculus (together the tectum), substantia nigra
when the inferior and superior colliculus come together they form this
Substantia nigra
dopamine production and parkinson's disease (lack of dopamine)
Forebrain- subcortical structures
outer portion of the brain, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system
final sensory processing
the four F's: feeding, fleeing, mating, fighting; plays a role in motivational activities
limbic system
emotion, contains the amygdala: aggression, motivational and emotional behaviors; and the hippocampus: memory
cerebral cortex
two hemispheres connected by corpus callosum; how information transfers from side to side; left controls right; each hemisphere has 4 lobes
frontal lobe
thought, personality, conscience; psychosurgery; motor cortex, including Broca's area (production of spoken language and sign language, even typing); trepanning in 19th century- doctors used for psychosurgery
parietal lobe
somatosensory cortex (has a map of the body knowing where you are poked) and sensory integration; sense of touch
temporal lobe
audition, including Wernicke's area (language comprehension), memory and hearing; speech and language perception
occipital lobe
vision, in the back of the head
The eye
transparent cornea for light to reach neurons in the back of the eye
the ring of colored tissue surrounding the pupil
hole in the center of the eye that allows light to enter; empty space; size changes depending on light conditions
transfers light to back of your eyeball in the retina; if it is off, one needs glasses or contacts to adjust lens with another lens
vitreous humor
mushy stuff behind lens that upholds the shape of eyeball
thin layer of tissue that covers the back of the ye and contains the light sensitive receptor cells for vision; strip of neurons covering most of eyeball b/c light comes in at many angles
optic nerve
all neurons feed into this and it gathers all information from eyeball to go to brain
optic nerve
little gap in the retina that has no nerve receptors; the blind spot
the process through which the lens changes its shape temporarily to help focus light in the retina
optic chaism
major crossover of the sides of the brain
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
most of the signals come in through this of the thalamus and then goes to the visual cortex
photo receptors
cones and rods
ganglion cells
long axons that extend to the optic nerve and into the brain
see color, detect motion, see fine detail, takes a lot of energy and light to work, cant see color in dark, located in center of retina, concentrated in the fovea, 6 million
highly sensitive and are active in dim light; work in the dark; located around sides of retina, in the periphery; 120 million
center of retina
everything besides the fovea
visual activity
ability to process fine detail in vision
trichromatic theory
a theory of color vision proposing that color information is extracted by comparing the relative activations of 3 different types of cone receptors
short and blue
450 nanometers
medium and green
525 nanometers
long and red
575 nanometers
20 minutes
time it takes to adapt to dim light
1 minute
time it takes to adapt to bright light
cones or rods? which ones adapt faster to dark
dimension of light that produces color
opponent-process theory
a theory of color vision proposing that cells in the visual pathway increase their activation levels to one color and decrease their activation levels to another color
bottom-up processing
controlled by the physical message delivered to the senses
top-down processing
controlled by one's beliefs and expectations about how the world is organized
how many dimensions are retinas
monocular cues
partially depends on what we already know about the world (size of a baby relative to size of adult); cues for depth that require input from only one eye
motion parallax
how fast things are moving as you move past them, through your visual angle
linear perspective
used in art, "dot" far away from you and as objects get closer they get farther apart horizontally
a binocular cue for depth that is based on the extent to which the two eyes move inward, or converge, when looking at an object
binocular disparity
both eyes must be used together
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for depth that is based on location differences between the images in each eye
part of each we can touch/see; made of cartilage, helps capture sound
ear drum
flexible, soft tissue; keeps inner ear equaling outer ear pressure, vibrates
hard shell, snail shaped, where sound is translated into nerve impulses; with 1 soft spot that is attached to the stepes; full of fluid; made of 3 chambers
scala vestibuli
extra fluid
scala media
action happens, hair cells
basilar membrane
sheet of membranes
determined by the level of pressure
what amplitude is measured in
highness or lowness; frequency, approximately
10-20 hertz
lowest frequency you can hear
20,000 hertz
highest amount of hertz
waves of 200, 400, 800, 1600
pattern of overtones
kinesthetic sense
the ability to sense the position and movement of one's body parts
vestibular sense
senses acceleration and changes in upright posture; disturbances lead to nausea
gustation; different between taste and flavor
what your tongue detects (sweet, sour, bitter, salty)
the whole experience (taste plus smell and texture)
bumps on tongue; taste buds are receptors within these
the pronunciation of spanish letter R can not be found in English. This represents a difference in the two languages
sensory motor
children first show object permanence during
deep structure
the cat chased the lizard. the lizard was chased by the cat. the two sentences share the same...