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medical doctors, can prescribe medication


reincarnation and recycling of knowledge


student of plato, tabula rasa, the birth of empiricism

rene descartes

positivism and 3 facts: i think therefore i am, all the stuff may or may not be there but the space holding it is there, motion- there is movement going on through space, introduces reflex


animals dont have a free will or immortal souls, there is the physical world and the mental world which is where souls come from

British Empiricists

John Locke and David Hume


born into the world knowing nothing, learn everything from experience

John Locke

pro democracy, everyone put their knowledge and wisdom together to come up with better ideas

David Hume

more into straight philosophy not politics, justice must be learned, causation is learned, some things are abstract and we cannot learn from experience

Immanuel Kant

notions that can't be learned (self, justice, causation), these notions make up the mental world

Wilhelm Wundt

the father of psychology, established psychology as experimental philosophy in Leipzig, psychology is the science of the mental world, structuralism, introspection


looking for the building blocks of consciousness, ran many experiments, tried to understand the mind by breaking it down into basic parts


looking within your own state of mind, required people to look inward and describe their own experiences

William James

the father of american psychology, american functionalism

Mary Witt Calkins

couldnt get a PhD at Harvard because she was a woman, first female president of the American Psychology Association


John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner

Behaviorist Manifesto

psychology should be about behavior, not the mind


behavior is what happens and what people do in the world, dont care about mental world; the only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate behavior

John Watson

hired at John Hopkins, later fired for sex scandal, created modern advertising


discovered operant conditioning

Charles Darwin

variation occurs naturally and randomly

London's Bethlehem or Bedlam

earliest attempt to treat mental illnesses, first institution

Franz Anton Mesmer

hypnosis or "mesmerism", started trying to treat people, moved to paris and turned it into a parlor game and became an entertainer

Jean Martin Charcot

his theory was that mesmerism could be used in treatment, thought only women who did bad things could get hysteria and it was a uterus disease, later realized that girls were faking it

Sigmund Freud

bad at hypnotizing, developed the relaxed setting for a psychology room, dimmed lights, comfy couch, had 2 theories: the patients, who were often daughters of aristocracy, were abused and the memories represented wishes or fantasies

Freud's Theoretical Personality Structures

id, ego, and superego


the unconscious and unrepentant seeker of pleasure; the portion of the personality that is governed by inborn instinctual drives, particularly those related to sex and aggression; the pleasure principle.. "I want"


the executive that acts in accordance with reality; reality principle.. cant always get what you want;


the moral seeker of ideal behavior; the portion of personality that motivates people to act in an ideal fashion; conscience, right vs wrong, guilt, idealistic principle.. always act in a proper and ideal fashion as defined by parents and culture

the oral stage

birth - 18 months, weaning from the breast, signs: eating, smoking, talking, gullible, sarcastic

anal stage

2-3 years, signs: toilet training; anal retentive: tidy, organized, forced to potty train; anal expressive: creative, permissive, not forced at all

phallic stage

3-6 years, for boys: want mothers full attention, oedipus complex: become erotically attracted to mother, resent father; for girls: blames mother for not giving her a penis, electra complex: attracted to father, wants to share father's penis by having sex with him


5- puberty, sexual feelings are largely suppressed, children direct attention to social concerns

The genital stage

sexuality reawakens, but in appropriate way, adolescence- adulthood, heterosexual relationships outside of the family


when there's conflict among the id, ego, and superego, unpleasant feeling of dread, unpleasant and defense mechanisms get rid of it, happens when you are fixated in a stage


designed to defeat defense mechanisms and deal with the causes of conflict, invented by Freud, let people feel more comfortable so that people let down their defense mechanisms to think more clearly

Defense Mechanisms

denial, repression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, displacement, sublimation


it's not happening; refuse to believe information that leads to anxiety


it didn't happen, past tense denial, most important weapon: keeps anxiety-producing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious


im not like that, you are; seeing your flaws in other people; unacceptable wishes or feelings that are attributed to others

reaction formation

im not like that, im the opposite of that; someone goes from one extreme to the other; you behave in a way that is counter to how you feel


there are good reasons why im like that; explaining and justifying your behaviors; explanations are created to deal with threatening thoughts


i need to go work out; putting negative feelings and energy into physical exertion


im going to write a revolutionary poem; emotional exertion

Carl Jung

didn't like that Freud was trying to explain individual behaviors and minds but that most of what we do happens in the collective unconscious

collective unconscious

the notion that certain kinds of universal symbols and ideas are present in the unconscious of all people and accumulates over a lifetime

Alfred Adler

didnt like how negative Freud was, inferiority complex- a concept that motivates a great deal of human behavior, our natural drive for superiority that explains motivation

Karen Horney

thinks that Freud's ideas on sexism mostly apply to men, doesn't believe in penis envy and that women are dissatisfied with their sex

normal distribution


correlation coefficient (r)

measures the strength of a relationship, basic range 0-1, 0 = no relationship between variables, 1= perfect relationship, negative correlations the range is really -1-1, correlation doesn't imply causation

independent variable

the aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment, must consist of 2+ conditions

dependent variable

behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment, does watching violent programs (independent) increase violence (dependent)?

the brain

100 billion cells (out of 60 trillion) called neurons


bundles of axons that make up neural "transmission cables"


all cells fired same way, send electro-chemical message to next neuron, distinguished only by pathway, narrow and wide


input either from outside world or another neuron, output goes to either another neuron or makes a muscle contract

sensory neuron

receives input from outside world and goes to another neuron


receives input from another neuron and send output to another neuron

motor neuron

receives input from another neuron and sends it to a muscle


each neuron can have up to this many dendrites


at rest, a neuron has a slight _______ charge


the differentiation that the inside of a neuron is negative, outside is positive


the act of a neuron firing, when a cell gets fired, a sodium or potassium channel opened and allowed some positive charge to come in which let the neuron not be so negatively charged


a fatty substance; purpose is to insulate axons within their neuron; insufficient myelin is huntington's disease

terminal button

the end of the neuron

people with brain damage

this problem is found in Wernicke's area and Broca's area

motor centers

efferent nerve pathways carry central nervous system messages outward to the muscles and glands

sensory centers

information travels to the brain and spinal cord through afferent nerve pathways

electroencephalograph (EEG)

monitor the gross electrical activity in the brain; better at measuring at the surface (the cortex)

Computerized tomography scan (CT)

absorbed X-rays indicate location of matter in the head; measures density of matter; highly focused X-rays construct detailed anatomical maps of the living brain

Positron emission tomography (PET)

radioactive stuff in blood indicates blood flow; drink radioactive stuff, it gets in blood stream, and shows up on PET, blood goes where the neural activity is happening, measures how radioactive substances are absorbed in the brain, it can be used to detect how specific tasks activate different areas of the living brain

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

magnetic properties of iron in blood; uses magnetic fields and radio wave pulses to construct detailed, 3D images of the brain; functional means a video clip of it not just picture, depend on blood flow directly having iron in hemoglobin (oxygen attaches to the iron in it, makes blood red), all the iron cells point to the magnet; cant do it you have metal in your body; map changes in blood oxygen use as a function of task activity

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

electrical current in neurons creates magnetic field; measure magnetic fields coming off your head

Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

somatic: 5 bodily senses, everything we are aware of; autonomic: happens automatically, breathing, heart rate, parasympathetic (calming), sympathetic (arousing)


primitive part of the brain that sits at the juncture point where the brain and spinal cord merge, medulla and pons, reticular formation, cerebellum

Medulla and pons

basic life support, heart rate, breathing, if damaged, will need a lot of help, luckily harder to damage because of location

reticular formation

sleep and consciousness, well protected but if damaged may cause coma


coordination of complex motor skills, looks like cauliflower


structures serve as neural relay stations and may help coordinate reactions to sensory events, superior and inferior colliculus (together the tectum), substantia nigra


when the inferior and superior colliculus come together they form this

Substantia nigra

dopamine production and parkinson's disease (lack of dopamine)

Forebrain- subcortical structures

outer portion of the brain, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system


final sensory processing


the four F's: feeding, fleeing, mating, fighting; plays a role in motivational activities

limbic system

emotion, contains the amygdala: aggression, motivational and emotional behaviors; and the hippocampus: memory

cerebral cortex

two hemispheres connected by corpus callosum; how information transfers from side to side; left controls right; each hemisphere has 4 lobes

frontal lobe

thought, personality, conscience; psychosurgery; motor cortex, including Broca's area (production of spoken language and sign language, even typing); trepanning in 19th century- doctors used for psychosurgery

parietal lobe

somatosensory cortex (has a map of the body knowing where you are poked) and sensory integration; sense of touch

temporal lobe

audition, including Wernicke's area (language comprehension), memory and hearing; speech and language perception

occipital lobe

vision, in the back of the head

The eye

transparent cornea for light to reach neurons in the back of the eye


the ring of colored tissue surrounding the pupil


hole in the center of the eye that allows light to enter; empty space; size changes depending on light conditions


transfers light to back of your eyeball in the retina; if it is off, one needs glasses or contacts to adjust lens with another lens

vitreous humor

mushy stuff behind lens that upholds the shape of eyeball


thin layer of tissue that covers the back of the ye and contains the light sensitive receptor cells for vision; strip of neurons covering most of eyeball b/c light comes in at many angles

optic nerve

all neurons feed into this and it gathers all information from eyeball to go to brain

optic nerve

little gap in the retina that has no nerve receptors; the blind spot


the process through which the lens changes its shape temporarily to help focus light in the retina

optic chaism

major crossover of the sides of the brain

lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)

most of the signals come in through this of the thalamus and then goes to the visual cortex

photo receptors

cones and rods

ganglion cells

long axons that extend to the optic nerve and into the brain


see color, detect motion, see fine detail, takes a lot of energy and light to work, cant see color in dark, located in center of retina, concentrated in the fovea, 6 million


highly sensitive and are active in dim light; work in the dark; located around sides of retina, in the periphery; 120 million


center of retina


everything besides the fovea

visual activity

ability to process fine detail in vision

trichromatic theory

a theory of color vision proposing that color information is extracted by comparing the relative activations of 3 different types of cone receptors

short and blue

450 nanometers

medium and green

525 nanometers

long and red

575 nanometers

20 minutes

time it takes to adapt to dim light

1 minute

time it takes to adapt to bright light


cones or rods? which ones adapt faster to dark


dimension of light that produces color

opponent-process theory

a theory of color vision proposing that cells in the visual pathway increase their activation levels to one color and decrease their activation levels to another color

bottom-up processing

controlled by the physical message delivered to the senses

top-down processing

controlled by one's beliefs and expectations about how the world is organized


how many dimensions are retinas

monocular cues

partially depends on what we already know about the world (size of a baby relative to size of adult); cues for depth that require input from only one eye

motion parallax

how fast things are moving as you move past them, through your visual angle

linear perspective

used in art, "dot" far away from you and as objects get closer they get farther apart horizontally


a binocular cue for depth that is based on the extent to which the two eyes move inward, or converge, when looking at an object

binocular disparity

both eyes must be used together

retinal disparity

a binocular cue for depth that is based on location differences between the images in each eye


part of each we can touch/see; made of cartilage, helps capture sound

ear drum

flexible, soft tissue; keeps inner ear equaling outer ear pressure, vibrates


hard shell, snail shaped, where sound is translated into nerve impulses; with 1 soft spot that is attached to the stepes; full of fluid; made of 3 chambers

scala vestibuli

extra fluid

scala media

action happens, hair cells

basilar membrane

sheet of membranes


determined by the level of pressure


what amplitude is measured in


highness or lowness; frequency, approximately

10-20 hertz

lowest frequency you can hear

20,000 hertz

highest amount of hertz


waves of 200, 400, 800, 1600


pattern of overtones

kinesthetic sense

the ability to sense the position and movement of one's body parts

vestibular sense

senses acceleration and changes in upright posture; disturbances lead to nausea




gustation; different between taste and flavor


what your tongue detects (sweet, sour, bitter, salty)


the whole experience (taste plus smell and texture)


bumps on tongue; taste buds are receptors within these


the pronunciation of spanish letter R can not be found in English. This represents a difference in the two languages

sensory motor

children first show object permanence during

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