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Developmental Psychology

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Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?
The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture, in turn, affects genes.
What is a "critical period" of development?
When certain things must occur for normal development.
Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?
Historical.
An individual's socioeconomic status includes
Level of education.
The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people has developed over the years as a design are referred to as their
Culture.
When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior?
Mirror neurons were activated.
Social learning theory emphasizes
Observation and imitation.
Piaget's view of cognitive development includes the idea that
Cognitive development follows age-related changes in understanding.
When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process
Accommodation.
A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations and transitions that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as the
Dynamic-systems theory.
Which of the following is the best definition of "dependent variable"?
It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental vehicle.
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the
Viewing a violent film.
A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of
Cross-sectional research.
A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, in conducting
Longitudinal research.
If you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that
High attendance and high grades tend to occur together.
Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection?
Interviewing of all the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions.
An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its
Genotype.
Which of the following statements is true regarding monozygotic twins?
Even though they begin with identical genotypes, their phenotypes may differ at birth
Dyzogtic twins are produced when
Two ova are fertilized by two different sperm at roughly the same time.
Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are
It is smaller than the other genes.
A gene is recessive when
Its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene.
The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are
Heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.
Which of the following terms describes the level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful?
Threshold effect.
If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skins, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed to a(n) ____________ fashion
Additive.
Imagine that eye color is determined by only one pair of genes and that brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes. If you are blue-eyed and both your parents are brown-eyes, you know that
Both your parents are carriers for blue eyes.
Low birth-weight is defined internationally as a body weight of less than
5 1/2 pounds.
Bill is a genetic counselor. In his position, he has an ethical obligation to
Give clients factual information about their tests and risks that a child may have a genetic disorder.
Most of us are aware of some of the characteristics of persons with Down Syndrome (slanted eyes, thick tongue, round face), but fewer people are aware of the fact that they
Seem to age more quickly, often develop dementias, are more prone to some cancers.
Which of the following factors related to sex and gender is most associated with nurture?
Gender role.
Marsha and Jim have twins, a boy and a girl. The twins are
Dizygotic.
Which of the following is the most common risk factor for low-birth weight?
Teen-pregnancy
What may be predisposing factors of postpartum depression?
Coping with a newborn with sleep problems, changing hormones, pre-pregnancy depression.
Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be
Put to sleep on their backs.
Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to
Refuse to cross over the visual cliff.
By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B.F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his
Parents' talking to him frequently.
Piaget believed children begin to develop cognitively at
Birth.
The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain
The universal inborn ability to learn language.
Newborns prefer
Speech over most other sounds.
The sense that is least developed at birth is
Vision
Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show that
Breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches.
Using the word more to mean "I want another cookie" is a
Holophrase.
A baby sticks out its tongue and another person laughs. The baby joins in the laughter and deliberately sticks out its tongue again. Piaget would call this
Secondary circular reactions.
If you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji, but had never seen one before, you would be able to recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process is
Assimiliation.
Piaget believed that object permanence developed at about 8 months of age. Which of the following is true
Piaget was incorrect about because his methods confused an infants' motor abilities with their cognitive abilities and object permanence occurs earlier.
Human Milk Banks in the U.S. provide breast milk for infants primarily for which of the following
For infants who cannot tolerate formula.
Ann-Marie started walking when she was 10 months old; Cynthia is just beginning to take steps by herself at 13 months. Which of the following is most likely?
Both girls are developing normally.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, breastfeeding is not as popular as it should be able to
Lack of societal support, physician apathy and misinformation, and marketing by formula companies.
A toddler experimentally varies the way she handles a ball—first squeezing it, then throwing it--in order to learn what effect each variation has. This child is demonstrating
Tertiary circular reactions.
"Constitutionally based individual differences in emotions, activity, and self-control" would be a useful and appropriate definition of
Temperament.
A parent and a toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will probably
Act anxious.
Which of the following is one of the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal Study?
Slow to warm up.
Basically, the Strange Situation measures how a child
Responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver.
Victor and Rosa want to enhance their synchrony with their 6-month-old daughter. They can best do this by
Imitating her vocal and facial expressions.
The new emotions that appear toward the end of the second year are
pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt.
According to Erikson's theory, which of the following is true of most toddlers?
They want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies.
When parents find a way to provide a smooth interaction between their child's temperament and his social, family, and school life, they have achieved
Goodness of fit.
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some
Self-awareness.
When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is a
Distant parent.
Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at
9 months.
"Proximity-seeking" and "contact-maintaining" behaviors are displays of
Attachment.
Concerning temperament and personality, research has found that
Temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy.
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be
A social smile.
Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is characteristic of
Insecure-avoidant attachment.
With respecting to toilet training, research indicates that
Starting training before 18mo is often related to slower completion.
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child
Interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.
Which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake?
Eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods.
Mrs. Suttman helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Suttman is providing
Scaffolding.
Secondary prevention involves
Responding to the first warning signs of a problem.
The most common cause(s) of death of children worldwide is(are)
Accidents.
The formation of overregulation in a child's speech patterns indicates
He or she is able to apply grammatical rules, although incorrectly, to her vocalizations.
A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to
Demonstrate centration.
Four-year-old Jon is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hotdogs for lunch. Mom cuts Jon's hotdog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces. Jon protests because "Erin has more than me!" Which of the following abilities does Jon not yet demonstrate?
Conservation.
Myelination
Speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
Krista understands that 4 + 6 = 10 but does not understand that 10 - 6 = 4. She is displaying
Irreversibility.
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called
Intuitive psychology.
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to
Social activities guided by others.
Ryan suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to the
Left side of the brain.
An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test of
Conservation of number.
Of the following types of child maltreatment, which is the most common?
Neglect.
Risk factors for child maltreatment would include
Extreme poverty, a home that contains general domestic violence, and social isolation.
__________ is generally considered a more mature emotion than ___________ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness
Guilt;shame.
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?
Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?
Parallel play.
A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is
Authoritarian.
Janelle's usual bedtime is 8:30 p.m., and her parents strictly enforce this rule. One evening, Janelle is watching an educational program on the Discovery Channel, which ends at 9 p.m. She asks her parents if she can stay up this one night and watch the end of the program. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which type of parenting style are Janelle's parents?
Authoritative.
The child most likely to have permissive parents is
Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older
He will become aggressive himself.
Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier
Relational aggression.
Karen is trying to determine how long her 4-year-old daughter should sit in time-out for deliberately pouring her juice on the floor. If she uses the suggested estimate, her daughter will be in time-out for
4 minutes
According to your text, _____________ differences are biological and ____________ difference are culturally prescribed
Sex;gender.
Freud believed that preschool boys
Secretly want to replace their fathers.
Identify the scenario that best demonstrates learning theories
Christine wears a dress, and both her parents tell her how pretty she looks.
Theorists who support a focus on children's understanding as opposed to observable behavior are
Cognitive theorists
The reason why watching violence on TV leads to aggression in children is
That they are disinhibited from being aggressive.
Physical punishment
Tends to suppress behavior in the short term.
To make punishment more effective
Make it consistent, make it age appropriate, and punish immediately after the infraction if possible.
When capable of concrete operational thought, children
Can apply their reasoning to real situations.
The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called
Transitive inference.
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called
Automatization.
As José walked to school with Tony, he saw Tony's notebook in his backpack. José rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook containing his homework. José's sensation on seeing Tony's notebook became a perception, which then triggered José's
Working memory.
Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?
Metacognition.
Although the test you are now taking measures many things, it is supposed to be a test of
Achievement.
Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling, some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called
The Flynn Effect.
A distinct type of intelligence described by Robert Sternberg is
Practical.
Howard Gardner believes that
Musical ability is a type of intelligence.
David is excitable, impulsive, and very active in addition to having difficulty concentrating. He might have
ADHD.
In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty
With communication.
The most devastating problem for autistic individuals as they grow up is their lack of
Social understanding.
Piaget has provided us with the ____________ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the ______________.
Individual context; social context.
Identify the statement that demonstrates the principle of reversibility
Addition can be used to undo subtraction.
Obesity in children is related to
TV watching, lower SES, and an inactive lifestyle.
Treatments for obesity in children
Should emphasize increased activity.
Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will
Reduce her self-esteem.
The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow remains unscathed in the process is called
Resilient.
Joshua and Jessica are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live with their
Nuclear family.
Of the following children, who is at greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult?
Richard, who is being raised by his single mom.
Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are
Low income and high conflict.
The family-stress model, as applied to economic conditions, illustrates that
The parents' reaction to poverty is the crucial factor in family stress
When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of
Social cognition.
The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is
Veru, who is disliked by most children because she is so uncooperative.
Girls who bully typically
Mock and ridicule their victim.
Kohlberg measured morality by
Analyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?
Pre-conventional.
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the
Functions of a family.
During the middle childhood, self-esteem typically
Decreases.
Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n)
Withdrawn-rejected child.
A Florida man killed a doctor who performed abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he could be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of
Post-conventional morality.
Which of the following factors is related to resilience in at-risk children
Self-efficacy, having positive role models outside the family, and structures and rules within the household.
For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is
Testosterone.
Which of the following adolescents will be most likely to experience menarche first?
Rebecca, who is of African descent.
What effect does malnutrition have on puberty?
It tends to delay the onset of puberty.
Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience
Teasing and name-calling from her classmates.
Because of the obsession with body image during adolescence, girls may ingest ________and boys may take____________
Diet pills;steroids.
Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from
Bulimia nervosa.
Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing at eating disorder?
The family sharing meals together.
Secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics that
Are not directly related to reproduction.
Which of the following is the most frequently reported STI?
Chlamydia.
A characteristic of adolescent egocentrism is
The belief that one's emotional experiences are misunderstood by others.
The belief that one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt a normal person is referred to as
The invincibility fable.
Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably
Put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of
Deductive reasoning.
Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver's license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, "Because I know other kids who do it, and it's just stupid that I have to wait another 3 months until I turn 16." This is an example of what kind of thinking?
Intuitive.
Over the past 50 years or so, teen births
Have decreased primarily due to greater use of contraceptives.
Effective treatments for anorexia may involve
Family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and drug therapy.
According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to
Form a coherent identity.
The ultimate psychological goal, according to Erikson, is identity
Achievement.
Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business - and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resisting
Identity foreclosure.
During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically
Attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary.
Gender identity refers to ____________, while sexual orientation refers to __________.
Self-definition as male or female; erotic desires.
In the United States, parent-child conflict peaks in
Early adolescence.
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is
Part of a warm, supportive relationship.
Mikhael, who is 15, has just moved to the United States with his parents from Ukraine. Mikhael's English skills are good, but his parents speak no English at all. Which of the following is likely to be true of Mikhael and his family?
Mikhael's family will depend on him to mediate between the family's old and new cultures.
A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found that 0.5 percent of American high school students identified themselves as homosexual, while a survey in Holland found that 8.5 % of students said that they were attracted to others of the same sex. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statistical difference?
Open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the United States.
You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12-year-old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12-year-old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?
The parents' answers grossly underestimate their daughters' behaviors.
According to international statistics, teenagers in the United States have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that
Teenagers in the United States use less contraception than those in other countries.
Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are
Less self-confident than they were as children.
Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?
Completed suicide.
One of the best ways to reduce drug use in adolescents is
For parents to forbid smoking and drink responsibly as role models.
The most common risk factor for suicide in general is
A diagnosable psychiatric disorder.
In the U.S., suicide spikes
In the 15-24 and over 65 age groups.
Patricia and Raul live together as a romantic couple, but they are not married. They are engaging in
Cohabitation.
Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby was raised by his grandparents. Now, at age 22, Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by which of the following developmental concepts?
The diathesis-stress model.
How do friends differ from family members?
Friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions.
Which of the following refers to the body's natural adjustment to any disruptions?
Homeostasis.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults?
Worldwide, emerging adults can now expect to live longer, healthier lives than a few decades ago.
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
OCD.
Thinking may become more _____________ and ______________ with each year of college
Reflective; expansive.
Theodore frequently hears voices and says that the KGB is coming to arrest him. His thinking seems very disorganized. From which of the following is Theodore most likely suffering
Schizophrenia.
If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?
Personality is both continuous and discontinuous.
Which of the following is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?
They are more likely to divorce if they marry.
Today's emerging adults have _____________ sexual partners and __________babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago
more; fewer.
If you were to ask a 22-year-old college student how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is
Acceptable.
During emerging adulthood, intimacy is found primarily in
Relationships with friends, family, and sexual partners.
When asked to estimate how much their peers smoke, drink, and do other drugs, college students tend to
Overestimate.
Emily is taking a mathematics exam and is concerned about the fact that her performance will confirm her friend's expectations that girls do not perform as well on mathematics exams as compared to boys. Emily is experiencing
Stereotype threat.
Research has shown that our attachment styles during childhood
Are related to our perspectives on romantic relationships in adulthood.
By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needs
Reading glasses.
Who will most likely have marked symptoms of menopause?
Norma, who just had a hysterectomy.
One of the effects of moderate drinking is
A reduction in coronary heart disease.
In middle adulthood, an individual is considered obese who
Has a BMI of 30 or more.
One measure of health is morbidity, which
Includes both acute and chronic illnesses.
The ability to enjoy life is measured by
Mobility and vitality.
Gender differences in senescence indicate that
Women age more slowly.
The idea that intelligence always declines throughout adulthood was
Supported by early cross-sectional studies.
The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in previous periods and with the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is called
Cross-sequential research.
Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is
The ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words.
The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthood
Is temporarily counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence.
Which of Sternberg's three aspects of intelligence could be called "street smarts"?
Practical.
Which of the following affects the development of expertise?
Talent, age, & practice.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal women involves taking
Estrogen and estrogen/progesterone combination.
In general, post-menopausal women may reduce the severity of menopause if they
Eat a healthful diet high in calcium, exercise, & avoid smoking.
Wendell has bone cancer and must use a wheelchair to accomplish his daily activities. He feels healthy and energetic and spends his days in a clown costume at the local children's hospital. Which of the following is true for Wendell?
He is disabled and has a high level of vitality.
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in
Stagnation and personal impoverishment.
In the United States today, the social clock
Allows for greater diversity than in the past.
A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension called
Openness.
The Big Five personality traits
Become quite stable by age 30.
In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend to
Assert themselves.
Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents
Improves with age.
A break-up would be most stressful for which of the following individuals?
Carlene, who is in a long-term marriage.
In the past two decades, every nation has seen _____________marriages and ________divorces
Fewer; more.
Who is most likely to feel burdened with elder care?
A daughter-in-law
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that
They do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly.
Limiting the time a person spends being ill or infirm is referred to as
Compression of morbidity.
Research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that -
Most visual and auditory losses can be compensated for.
The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called __________aging
Primary.
Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?
Secondary.
Studies of centenarians indicate that
They usually were able to handle stress well.
The person most likely to be a caregiver to adult who needs it would be
The patient's daughter.
The antithesis of disengagement theory is
Activity theory.
A marked decrease in motor reaction time and brain processing in older adults may be attributed to
Shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus.
After losing a spouse, older women typically
Enjoy their independence, choosing not to remarry.
Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it. Their grand-parenting style is
Companionate.
Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are
Happier in their marriages.
At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates
Continuity theory.
Which of the following is one of the ADLs?
Bathing.
Recent research has indicated that most older adults
Want to retire as soon as they are eligible.
Most elder abuse is committed by
Family members.
Which of the following is a risk factor for elder abuse?
Dementia in the abuse victim, dependence on the victim by the perpetrator, & social isolation.
One function of working memory is
Temporary storage of information for conscious use.
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people
Develop an appreciation for the aesthetic.
Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in adulthood, she
Is quite happy and enjoying her life.
The irreversible changes that occur naturally occur with time are called ________ aging
Primary.
Which of the following is one of the IADLs?
Grocery shopping.
The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is being
Old.