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B Period Final Exam

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Shah Pahlavi
The king of Iran before being overthrown by Islamic Revolution. He supported western/democratic reforms which the people of Iran were against.
Ayatollah Khomeini
Iranian revolutionary, and founder of the Islamic republic of Iran. Led the Iranian revolution, which saw the overthrowing of the Pahlavi Revolution.
Mujahedeen
Guerrilla fighters in Islamic countries, especially those who are fighting against non-Muslim forces.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy who seized power because he promised to rescue italy from depression and other economic troubles. He used propaganda, censorship, and fear as leadership tactics.
Adolf Hitler
Fascist leader of the Nazis and chancellor of Germany
Mein Kampf
a book written by Adolf Hitler while he was in prison about his goals and visions of a greater Germany
Berlin Wall
A barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989 that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Berlin and East Germany
NATO
A defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by the US, Canada, and ten Western European nations
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries including Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania
League of Nations
organization formed after World War I to keep peace. This was the result of the Treaty of Versailles and it was the idea of President Wilson. 32 countries were involved.
Woodrow Wilson
U.S president during World War I who helped create the League of Nations at the Treaty of Versaille. He was one of the "Big Four" who also created the Fourteen Points (rules after the war).
Treaty of Versailles
a treaty after World War I. Thirty two countries were involved but it was the big four that had the most power ( U.S- Wilson, France- Clemenceau, Great Britain- George, and Italy- Orlando.) The goal was long lasting peace and it include Wilson's Fourteen Points.
D-Day
The day of June 6, 1944 when the Allies invaded the beaches of Normandy
Okinawa and Iwo Jima
2 battles fought in the Pacific during WWII between US and Japanese, both islands conquered by US
Hiroshima and Nagasaki-
the two Japanese cities where the atomic bombs were dropped by the Americans which led to the surrender of Japan in WWII
Cuban Missile Crisis
A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missiles in Cuba; very intense part of cold war; thought it would lead to a real war.
Domino Theory
The theory that if one country becomes communist, the countries surrounding it will follow and become communist as well
Vietcong
A communist-led army in South Vietnam, fighting for the North, who used guerilla tactics.
Ho Chi Minh
A Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Prime Minister and President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Richard Nixon
The President of the U.S. from 1969-1974 though the Vietnam war.
Ronald Reagan
The President of the U.S from 1981-1988 who supported the Space Race and the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Marshall Plan
A policy that said that the U.S. would help out other countries in order to gain their support. They didn't want to have the Soviets influence continue to spread
Brinkmanship
Being on the edge, or brink of war, not actually fighting. The Cold War is an example of brinkmanship
Containment
The policy in which the U.S. tries to contain, or stop the spread of communism especially by the Soviets. They attempt to spread any other opinion other than that of communism
Osama bin Laden
Founder of the terrorist groups Al Qaeda and responsible for numerous mass attacks against civilians (The 9/11 attacks on the U.S.)
Al Qaeda
A terrorist group founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988. This group is responsible for many mass attacks against civilians.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
Agreement between Britain and France that they would divide up the Middle East after they won WW1.
Totalitarianism
A system of government where the ruler has total control of all aspects of life, including social, economic, political, and religious aspects.
Fascism
A system of government, much like a totalitarian system, where the government is in complete control. Many times, people who disapproved of the system would be punished. Ex of leaders: Mussolini, Hitler
Josef Stalin
Leader of the USSR, and was a brutal communist ruler. He was the leader after Lenin, and during both World Wars. This leader also participated in the Cold War, and developed the USSR into a super power
Soviets
Local representative councils formed in Russia after the fall of Czar Nicholas II
Depression
Sustained period of economical struggle. A long term recession. Caused by inflation, and unemployment
Inflation
An increase in printing of money, causing the price of goods and services to rise.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Communist leader of the Soviet Union from 1990-1991. Made policies of Glasnost (Policy that let people practice religion) and perestroika (Policy that let people own small businesses)
Boris Yeltsin
1st President of Russia (1991-1999). He used Shock Therapy to democratize Russia and its satellite nations.
Shock Therapy
Withdrawal of state. Rapid privatization occurs. Often accompanied by extreme inflation
Balfour Declaration
In 1917, the British established a declaration that stated they would turn Palestine into a nation-state for Jews.
Terrorism
The deliberate and systematic use of violence against civilians with the aim of advancing political religious or ideological causes.
Kuwait
An Arab country in the Persian Gulf. Invaded in 1990, during the Persian Gulf War
Allies
state formerly cooperating with another from military and other purposes typically by treat
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan- Later on, two of these three Axis Powers would become major theaters in World War Two
Pearl Harbor
the December 7, 1941 attack by the Japanese on the US, the final reason for us to join WWII
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide bombers from WWII
Stalingrad
a major battle of WWII where the Soviets and their allies fought against Germany for control of the city. It was a major turning point for the war to be in favor of the allies
38th parallel
the border between North and South Korea
Jiang Jieshi/ Chang Kai-shek
nationalist ruler in China during civil war
Truman Doctrine
foreign policy to stop soviet imperialism during the Cold War
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders (1990-1991)
Iraq War
A military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. US combat troops were withdrawn in 2010
Soviet-Afghan War
the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops during the Cold War
Censorship
When countries do things so people don't know about stuff that they don't want them to know about.
Propaganda
Tactics or information used to promote a specific idea
Appeasement
Giving into an aggressor's demands for peace.
Mao Zedong
He was the leader of the communists in China and controlled most of country. His "youth" were the Red Guards.
Great Leap Forward
Mao's attempt to industrially revolutionize China in a very short period of time- spoiler alert: it was an epic fail.
Cultural Revolution
A movement in China with Mao Zedong and the Red Guards in which the goal was a communist nation
Communism
A form of socialism where there is no private property, and the economy is controlled by the government. It was developed by Karl Marx and spread by Vladimir Lenin.
Bolsheviks
A group of Russians that supported Lenin and his ideas of communism. They also retaliated at the government in a series of revolutions, or the Russian Revolutions.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
He became leader of Russia and renamed it the USSR after the Russian Revolutions. During the revolutions, he became the face of communism because of his dedication and support from the Bolsheviks and he wanted to instill it in the government.
Yalta Conference
conference held in Yalta where U.S. president Roosevelt, Soviet leader Stalin, and British Prime Minister Churchill planned the final stages of World War II
United Nations
international organization formed to promote peace, security, and economic development
Iron Curtain
Barrier dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II until the end of the Cold War (there's not really an iron curtain)