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Terms in this set (23)

Biology psychologists believe that depression is inherited and/or and in our genes rather than what we learn as a result of experience. Yet there is difficulty in isolating the effects from genes from the effects of the environment
Wender found that biological parents of adoptive suffers of depression were 7x more likely to have had depression then their adoptive parents. Adopted children who later developed aggression found that their biological parents were 8x more likely to have had suffered from depression then their adoptive parents.

The 5HTT gene is a serotonin transporter gene on chromosome 17. Moffit et al found that 43% of those who had the 5HTT gene had developed depression, and that those with a different gene the percentage of depressed people dropped to 17%. This is specific and not just an assumption, given that it has a role in serotonin production it makes it even more likely to be linked with depression. Following the diathesis-stress model, that believes that genetic factors predispose someone to depression but that depression is expressed after environmental influences. One way of trying to untangle genes from the environment would be to use biological methods of treatment and then cognitive based treatment, which ever is the most effective has the strongest link, yet it is almost impossible to separate the link between nature and nurture.
Kendler et al found that women who were the co-twin of a depressed person were more likely to become depressed themselves because they share the same genetics. Even higher levels were in those that are genetically at risk and had experiences negative life events e.g. death.
Gene mapping offers the possibility of developing tests to identify individuals with a high risk of developing depression, though this raises many socially sensitive and ethical concerns.
PIT (psychodynamic interpersonal therapy) was developed by Robert Hobson, who wanted to move away from the traditional psychodynamic approach and encourage the client and the therapist to engage in therapeutic conversation.
Rather than talking about feeling in an abstract way, an attempt is made to recreate them in a therapeutic environment. The therapist tries to understand what the individual is really experiencing or feeling, by saying, 'this is what I'm hearing you say, have i got it right?'.
Interpersonal difficulties in the individuals' life are identified and the therapist tries to find a rationale of the individual that links their current symptoms with these difficulties. The therapist acknowledges and encourages changes made during therapy.
Paley et al. investigated the effectiveness of PIT in a routine clinical practice setting. 62 ps received a course of PIT over a 52 month period and their outcomes were assessed using BDI, (there was a sig diff pre and post treatment). Showing that PIT can be an effective treatment for depression in hospitals and surgeries.

Psychoanalysis, dream analysis, ps record dreams and the therapist interprets them for hidden meanings, the manifest content is what the dream is about and the therapist tried to uncover the lateral content, the real meaning behind the dream. Critics claim that therapists aren't helping ps to recover repressed memories but are (without knowing) placing false memories in to their mind. Focusing on the therapist as the tool for recovery and not the patient, therefore becoming dependent on their therapist, even for many years.