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This special set of flashcards is to help me study for my MAJOR exam coming up this Friday. Hopefully this helps.


a link between people that spread ideas.


a study of humanities past;explaining how global processing was developed to survive..and how these things caused change.


the spread of a practice,belief,culture,or technology within a community or communities.


a group that has:cosmopolitan culture,borders,centralized government,and instruments of power.


a coercive labor system in which christian boys were foot soldiers and converted into muslim.

gunpowder empires

Ottoman, Safavids, Mughal

ghinggis khan legacy

tolerance, written language, trade/crafts,legal code:Jasagn.


sunni, capital of damascus, excluded non-muslims,expanded to spain,promoted trade, no religious conversion, accomplished an expansion in their economic system

tributary state

when smaller states depend upon a larger state that provides it with resources &markets.


the culture of the west/Byzantine empire.


when the laws of religion are the laws of the government


submission to the will of Allah.

Five Pillars of Islam

1).Faith, 2).Prayer 3).donate(2.5%), 4).fast during the holy month of Ramadan, 5).pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime.


the political, religious leader of Islam.

Abu Bakr

the first caliph/-also: a leader, judge, and political leader.


a political,economic, and social system based on loyalty & military service system of government where land is exchanged for food,service,/loyalty.

tang dynasty

expands to the west to control more of the slik road,used the gentry,a foreign dynasty that originated in the west,expanded tade in the Indian maritime system..etc.

song dynasty

surrounded by enemies,merchant class,development of more literacy/education,(neo-confucianism),magnetic compass,stern-rutter,junk boat,flying paper $.


stretches from southern mexico to northern Hondorus; located in a densely forested area/built platforms that were filled w/ trash.


connection that allows something to flow from one point to another.

Mongol Yoke

once a year tax of money/luxury goods that the Mongols would collect only in the month of October.


male citizens who own property.


a fortified hilltop/ a meeting place.


phonetic language:22 letters, had colonies, obtained in purple dye.


had a military, close relationships w/ the gods, government, didn't force people to adopt to the religion,conquered land-provinces.


weren't unified due to their goegraphy,had polises:trade& had colonies for food.


Had advances in chemistry,medicine, and astronomy.

Agricultural Revolution

1).Rise in temp.,2).wild seed plants,3).cultural diffusion,4).change in animal pattern.


Had strict laws,harsh punishment; "strengthening the trunk, while weakening the branches."

complex institutions

provided patterns/organization to help a civilization survive.

Ice Age

known as the Paleolithic age.

Bronze Age

8,000 B.C.E-600 C.E., had bronze and iron/metal weapons& tools, had urbanized culture and urban lifestyle.


controlling your food supply.

intensified agriculture

humanity had more food & food/knowledge.

Neolithic Age

used polished stone, wood, bone, and leather during this age; also humans begin to control the food supply.

Pedro Alvares Cabral

this person dicovered Brazil, and claimed it to be the Portuguese.

Yongle Encyclopedia

a collection of chinese doctrines.

Grass and water

the resource in which pastorialists needed to prosper:

East Africa

Humanity originated/began in:

Pubic work

examples that pertain to this term: monumental structures, defensive walls,systems of irrigation, etc..

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