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129 terms

Marine Science Exam Review

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Marine Science
Process of discovering facts, processes, & unifying principles that explain nature of oceans & their associated life forms.; Involves physical, life & earth/space science
How much of the oceans have humans seen?
Very little of the ocean; about the size of a period on a page
Who made the first recorded sea voyage?
The Egyptians
What did the Phoenicians do for marine science?
Established first trade routes through mediterranean
earliest known regular open-seafaring beyond sight of land
Greek Pytheas
Used North Star to determine how far north or south sailor is on ocean
Eratosthenes
Created first latitude/longitude system
Calculated Earth's circumference
Latitude and Longitude
Identifies specific locations on Earth's surface
Latitude
parallel
equator is 0 degrees parallel
Longitude
Meridian
0 degrees meridian runs through Greenwich, England
Chinese ships in 1400s
Central rudder
watertight compartments
Vespucci
First European explorer to recognize South America as new continent
Balboa
Crossed Isthmus of Panama & found Pacific Ocean
Magellan
Led first expedition around world in 1519-1522
James Cook
voyages differ from other sea explores because he had science and exploration as only goals
Darwin's hypothesis
explains that coral reefs form though process of coral growth as seafloor subsides/sinks
Challenger Expedition
first expedition devoted entirely to marine science
German Meteor Expedition
Mapped Atlantic seafloor
Atlantis
first ship constructed specifically for marine science
ROV
Remotely operated vehicle
Small, unmanned, sub w/ propellers, video camera and umbilical to surface
AUV
Autonomous underwater vehicle
Untethered robotic devices propelled through water by self-contained power systems& controlled/piloted by onboard computer
GPS
made navigation significant;y more accurate
Theory of formation of planets
Some condensing gas revolving around sun collapsed into masses too small to become stars
Theory of moon's origin
planet-sized object struck young Earth, sending material into orbit
Theory of Formation of oceans
after earth cooled, water accumulated on surface
Autotroph
Self-feeding
Heterotroph
Must get NRG from other organisms
Theory of evolution
says modern organisms and characterisitcs arose through processes of mutation and natural selection over millions of years
Benthic Zone
botton
Abyssal zone
Deep open ocean bottom
Pelagic zone
water portion
Intertidal zone
continental shelf
nertic zone
between low-tide mark and edge of continental shelf
oceanic zone
open ocean
photic zone
light
aphotic zone
no light
plankton
group of animals and plants that float in ocean currents
nekton
organisms that swim
benthos
live on or in sea bottom
neuston
float
subgroup of plankton
epifauna
organisms that live on sea bottom
infauna
organisms that live buried or partially buried in sea bottom
cellular respiration
conversion of carbohydrate to usable NRG
Primary Produces
organisms that create NRG-rich compounds
plants, plankton (phytoplanton, zooplanton) Product carbon
most productive zone coastal temperate regions and subpolar regions have most productivity
diatoms
organisms with rigid cell wall made of silica
dinoflagellate
organisms with one or two flagella
coccolitophores
organisms with calcium carbonate shell
picoplankton
bacteria with chlorophyll also called cyanobacteria. produce oxygen & take up carbon dioxide
Trophic pyramid
representation of how NRG transfers from 1 level of organisms to another
lose 10% each level
primary consumers
organisms that consume primary producers
secondary consumers
organism that consumes primary consumers
polar molecule
molecules with positively and negatively charged ends
properties of water possible because polar
liquid @ room temp
surface tension
ice floats
salinity
all inorganic dissolved solids in seawater
principle of constant proportions
proportion of inorganic dissolved solids remain same relative to each other. sea salts
determines salinity by only measuring chlorinity of seawater
chloride
most abundant chemical in seawater besides hydrogen and oxygen
salinity and density
the higher the salinity the higher the density
why is carbon fundamental to life
it provides versatile foundation for diverse chemicals
with do organisms need nitrogen
formation of organic compounds such as proteins, chlorophyll and nucleic acids
why is phosphorus essential for life
it is important component of DNA and other nucleic acids
Why is silicon important for some marine life
used for shells and skeletons in some organisms
water and freezing
water becomes less dense as it freezes
Low temp and high salinity make seawater
more dense
what is the ocean stratified with
denser layers below less dense layers
thermocline
boundary between layers of water with differing temps
convection
caused by warm air rising and cool air flowing into replace it
Coriolis effect
due to earth's rotation air moves faster at equator than at all poles
also affects air and water currents
currents deflect right in northern hemisphere and deflect left in southern hemisphere
trade winds
between 0 degrees and 30 degrees latitude
blow towards equator
westerlies
between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude
blow toward poles
geographic equator
@ 0 degrees
itcz/meteorological equator
imaginary line marking temp equilibrium between hemispheres
gyre
combination of westerlies, trade winds and coriolis effect flow in each ocean basin
5 major gyers in each major ocean basin
countercurrent
runs opp to adjacent current
formed by water entering a basin faster tan it exits
undercurrent
runs beneath adjacent current
why formed is unclear
What is the pattern of thermohaline circulation
redistributing heat through sinking of dense water, which causes deep water to ride and eventually enter surface currents
without currents the world's climates would be more
extreme
ocean wave
NRG transmission through matter
matter moves as wave passes, but returns to place of origin
period
time it take for same spot on 2 waves to pass single point
height
vertical distance from trough to crest
frequency
number of waves that pass fixed point in one second
wavelength
horizontal distance between 2 identical points on two waves
waves break when
their H:L ratio exceeds 1:7 and when they reach a depth of 1.3 times wave height
Tsunamis don't destroy ships in open sea
because periods are so long that ships rise and fall very slowly when tsunami passes under them
tides
caused primarily by moon's gravity with some effect from sun
diurnal tides
single high and low tide daily
semidiurnal tides
2 roughly equal high and low tides daily
mixed tides
2 unequal high and low tides daily
spring tides
form when sun and moon align with earth
neap tides
occur when sun and moon at right angles to earth
four major layers (center to outward)
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
lithosphere
uppermost solid portion of mantle and crust
sedimentary rock
formed when accumulated organic and inorganic particles are compressed and cemented together
continental drift
one continent broke up and drifted apart
sonar
maps bottom terrain of ocean
trench
deep ravines in seafloor
mid-ocean ridge
underwater mountain range
rift valley
runs through center of mid-ocean ridge
continental shelf
extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain
continental slope
descent from the continental shelp to the ocean bottom
island
any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water
divergent pate
spread apart
convergent continental plates
plates collide, create volcanos and mountains
convergent oceanic plates
subduction, one plate sinks beneath other, possible creation of Japan
transform fault/plate
plates slide past each other
seafloor spreading
magma pushes up from asthenosphere, emerges from rift valley
hot spots
local rising column of magma that doesn't move with plate above it
Hawaii islands
Convection
causes plates to move
Over next million years
Atlantic Ocean will expand, Pacific ocean will shrink, mediterranean sea close upa s africa moves north, east africa rift valley will have new ocean, southern california will pass san francisco and move northwest
Lithogenous sediment
originate from land
Biogenous
originate from organisms, most abundant with respect to total volume, voer larger area of sea floor,
hydrogenous
result from chemical reactions within seawater
cosmogenous
originate from outer space
sedimentes are classified by
size based on diameter of individual particle
continental shelf sedimentation is
strongly controlled by tides, waves and currents
rate of continental-shelf sedimentation is
generally faster than rate of deep-ocean sedimentation
active coast line
occurs near where tectonic plates collide
passive coastline
occurs away from tectonic plate boundaries
primary coast
formed by geologic processes not directly related to ocean
secondary coast
formed by marine action
forces are marine life
land deposition/sedimentation
deltas
volcanic activity
volcanic islands
tectonic activity
fault coasts
wave-erosion coast
wave NRG focuses on areas that protude
marine deposition coasts
due to accumulation of ocean sediments in one place
Foreshore
part that water sometimes covers
backshore
region rarely touched by seawater
barrier island
large sediment deposits that form between ocean and shore-line
spit
forms when waves refraction slows long-shore current allowing sand to settle out
Jetty
protrudes perpendicular from shore to protect harbor
groin
protrudes perpendicular from shore
breakwater
creates artificial calm water lagoon.