How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

189 terms

digestive cooper

STUDY
PLAY
2 components of the digestive system
alimentary tract, accessory organs
alimentary tract aka
the tube
accessory organs=
teeth salivary gland liver pancreas gallbladder
alimentary tract
oral cavity oropharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum anus
layers of the alimentary tract
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia/serosa
layer of the alimentary tract closest to lumen=
mucosa
outermost layer of the alimentary tract
adventita/serosa
allows organs to slide and not stick together
serosa
serosa is made of what kind of epithelium
simple squamous mesothelium
simple squamous mesothelium lining the free surface of organs insidde perotneal cavity
serosa
loose connective tissue outside the peritoneal cavity
adventita
lets organs stick together and allows adhearance
adventitia
adventitia is made of
loose connective tissue
type of muscularis externa in the esophagus and anus
skeletal muscle
lining in alimentary tract that can be skeletal or smooth muscle
muscularis externa
lining of the alimentary tract that is dense irregular connective tissue
submucosa
the submucosa allows the passage of
blood vessels and nerve ganglia
the mucosa lining of the alimentary tract is made of
epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
component of the mucosa that lines the lumen
epithelium
part of the mucosa that changes along tract depending on function
epithelium
part of mucosa made of loose connective tissue
lamina propria
the lamina propria of the mucosa houses
blood vessels, lymphatics, immune cells
the layer of the mucosa that controls all its secretions
muscularis mucosa
layer of the mucosa that is a thin layer of smooth muscle
muscularis mucosa
layer in the alimentary tract made of dense connective tissue that houses mucous glands in esophogus or duodenum and houses blood vessels lymph vessels and nerve on GI Tract
submucosa
nerve found in the submucosa that controls secretions in mucosa and submucosa
meissners submucosal nerve plexus
how many layers in the muscularis externa
2 layers
what are the 2 layers of the muscularis externa
inner circular outer longitudinal
upper 1/3 of esophgus has what kind of muscle
skeletal
middle 1/3 of esophgus has what kind of muscle
mixed skeletal and smooth muscle
lower 1/3 of esophgus has what kind of muscle
smooth
between two layers of muscle in muscularis externa is the ______
auerbach myentric plexus
autonomic plexus responsible for the peristaltic action of external muscle layer
auerbach myenteric plexus
adventitia is lined by simple squamous epithelium called
serosa
which is interior adventitia or serosa
adventitia
which is exterior adventitia or serosa
serosa
serosa has a ____appearance
pancake
serous aka
protein
largest salivary gland=
parotid
parotid gland produces a____ secretion
serous
submandibular glands produce ___&___ secretion
protein and mucin
gland that is mostly mucous secretion with serous secreting cells in the form of demilunes around acinus
sublingual
half moon shaped serous secreting cell that is apart of mucous cell
demilune
group of cells that secrete into a common duct
acinus
mixture from salivary glands produces
saliva
saliva is made of
digestive enzymes mucins water
digestive enzymes come from
serous acini
mucins come from
mucous acini
3 salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
demilunes are associated with which gland
sublingual
the tongue consists of____muscle
skeletal
the tongue is oriented in ___ directions
3
the dorsal surface of the tongue is characterized by what type of epithelium
heavily keratonized stratified squamous epithelium
elevatoins on the dorsal side of the tongue are called
papillae
specilized projections on the dorsal of tongue that add texture=
papillae
3 types of papillae
fliliform fungiform circumvallate
papillae like cat tongue
filiform
papillae that is threadlike with no taste buds and rough
fillliform
papillae that are mushroom shaped with taste buds
fungiform
papillae with deep moats and lateral taste buds
circumvallate
deep valleys on circumvallate papillae are
moats
largest form of papivalle
circumvallate
papillae on the lateral side of the base=
fungiform
papillae with taste buds
fungiform circumvallate
papillae with lateral taste buds
circumvallate
between the oral cavity and the esophagus is the
oropharynx
type of epithelim lining the oropharynx
stratified squamous non keratonized epithelium
the ssnk of the oropharynx allows
abrasion from bolus
muscularis mucosa in oropharynx is replaced by
elastic limiting layer
layer that is specifict to oropharynx
elastic limiting layer
the oropharynx has a poorly defined
submucosa
type of epithelium lining the esophagus
stratifed squamous non keratonized epithelium
unlike the oropharynx the____ has a well developed muscularis mucosa and submucosa
esophagus
as you transition from skeletal to smooth muscle you lose______
conscious control
2 types of glands in the esophagus
esophgeal, esophgeal cardiac
glands located in the esophogus within the submucosa secretes acidic mucons
esophogeal glands
glands located in the esophgus in the lamina prpria of cranial and caudal region that makes secretions protecting from acid reflux
esophogeal cardiac gland
the esophogeal cardiac gland makes a____secretion
neutral
the gland in the esophogus that is unseen
esohogeal cardiac gland
4 parts of the stomach
cardiac, pyelorus, fundus, body
part of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
pyelorus
part of the stomach where the esophogus enters
cardia
equivalent parts of the stomach
fundus body
Diagnostic feature of the stomach is that glands....
do not penetrate the muscularis mucosa
in addition to circular and longitudinal layers the stomach has
an innermost oblique muscle layer
epithelium of the stomach=
simple columnar epithelium
the epithelium of the stomach forms
gastric pits and glands
folds in the stomach=
rugae
rugae have a core of
submucosa
how many muscle layers in the stomach
3
responsible for turning food and getting food in contact with digestive enzymes
3 muscle layers
5 types of stomach cells
mucous, APUD, chief, parietal, stem
type of stomach cell that secretes either neutral or acidic mucous
mucous
stomach cell that secretes hormones or paracrine factors that control secretions of other cells affecting gut motility
APUD
where do APUD cells secrete
basally into blood vessels
stomach cell that secretes gastrin and somatostatin
APUD
Gastrin stimulates_____secretion
gastric acid secretion
somatostatin inhibits
secretion of other APUD cells
stomach cell that secretes pepsinogen and gastric lipase
chief cells
gastric lipase is involved in
lipid breakdown
pepsinogen is a precursor to
pepsin
stomach cell that gives rise to other cell types
stem
stomach cell that transports H and CL in stomach creating acidic environment
parietal
gastrin from APUD cells stimulates
parietal cells
parietal cells are known to secrete
gastric intrinsic factor
a glycoprotein that binds from parietal cells
vitamin b12
if vitamin b12 cannot b absorped you become
anemic
stomach cells found in fundus/body
chief, parietal
majority of the rugae is made of
pits and glands
invaginations in the stomach are known as
gastric pits
digestive organ that functions in terminal digestion and absorption of nutrients into circulation
small intestine
feature of the small intestine that is single cell mucous gland
goblet
feature of the small intestine with absorptive cells with a brush border made of microvilli increasing SA
Enterocytes
adaptations of the small intestine to increase SA
villi, crypts, microvilli
fingerlike projections on the small intestine that increase SA
Villi
villi have a core of
lamina propria
valleys between villi are called
crypts
in the small intestine the analgous to the rugae of the stomach are____to increase SA
Plica circulares
difference between plica circulares of small intestine and rugae of stomach is that
plica circulares do not disappear on distention
APUD Cells in the small intestine secrete
cholecystokinin, secretin, serotonin, somatostatin
secretion from apud of small intestine that acts on gallbladder and pancreas
cholecystokinin
apud secretion that stiumlates bicarbonate secretion from ductal cells in pancreas
secrertin
____neutrilzes the acidity of food leaving stomach
bicarbonate
apud secretion that stiumlates contraction of smooth muscle in gut
serotonin
apud secretion that inhibits the secretion of other apud cells
somastatin
apud cell secretion involved in feedback
somastatin
on top of each plica is a
villi
total increase in surface area on small intestine
600 fold
increase in surface area from plica
3x
increase in surface area from villi
10x
increase in surface area from microvilli
20x
in the duodenum the___regulates the flow of chyme
pyloric sphincter
when entering the small intestine you change from pits and glands to __ and__
villi crypts
key diagnostic feature of the duodenum is the presence of a
brunners gland
what does a brunners gland do
produces alkaline mucous to neutralize chyme creating optimal ph
distinct feature in the base of the jejunum=
panneth cells
panneth cells secrete ___
lysozyme
what does lysozyme do
disrupts the walls of some bacteria
distictive feature of the ileum
peyers patches
large clusters of lymphatic nodules in the illeum=
peyers patches
peyers patches are important for
immune surveilance
part of the small intestine with the longest plica
jejunum
digestive organ that functions to reabsorb water and form fecal mass
large intestine
components of the large intestine
cecum, appendix, colon
organ with crypts but no villi
colon and rectum
colon has a large number of
goblet cells
outer longitundinal muscle on the colon
teniae coli
colon and rectum both have crypts but no
villi
internal anal sphincter has___muscle
smooth
external anal sphincter has____muscle
skeletal
type of epithelium in the anus
SSNK
resident cell of the liver=
hepatocytes
75% of the blood in the liver comes from the___via the___
intestines, hepatic portal vein
25% of the blood in the liver comes from ____via the___
systematic circulation, hepatic artery
blood mixture exits the liver at the
hepatic vein
bile exits the liver at the
common hepatic duct
the liver is divided into
lobules
blood and bile flow in ____directions in the liver
opposite
portal triad is made of
hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, bile ducts
in each lobule hepatocytes are arranged along discontinuous capillaries called
sinusoids
bile is produced by____ in the liver
hepatocytes
in the liver blood flows from the portal triad to the____ where it is filtered
central vein
bile is stored in____
gallbladder
the gallbladder contracts in response to____from APUD cells of small intestine
CCK
A key feature of the gallbladder is the _____ that are highly folded mucosal arangements
rokitansky aschoff crypts
the pancreas secretes____that end up in the bloodstream
hormones
organ that is both endocrine and exocrine gland
pancreas
pancreas secretes___that end up in the duodenum
digestive enzymes
the liver is arranged in ____
lobules
the pancreas secretes ____ and____making it endocrine and exocrine
hormones, digestive enzymes
in the pancreas the____ducts are large and lead to duodenum
interlobular
____ducts in the pancreas come together and secrete into ____ducts
intra, inter
endocrine cells of the pancreas are isolated in cluster called
islets of langerhans
the most abundant type of islet cell is
beta cell
beta cell secretes
insulin
what does insulin do
decrease blood gluclose levels by stimulating cells to take in gluclose
how many types of islet cells are there
4
in the pancreas exocrine secretions are synthesized by
acinar cells
digestive enzymes from exocrine pancreas are packaged together in secretory vesicles called
zymogen granules
____ from apud cells stiumlates the ducts in the exocrine pancreas to secrete water and bicarbonate
secretin
digestive enzymes in zymogen granules function best at____
alkaline ph from brunner gland in duodenum
in the sublingual glands the serous secreting cells are in the form of
demilunes
the outer longitudinal muscle layer of the colon thickens into 3 bands called
teniae coli
____&_____has crypts but no villi
colon
rectum
the colon and rectum have alot of
goblet cells
intra=
within
inter=
between
zymogen cells from the pancreas function optimally at
the alkaline ph created by brunners gland in the duodenum
exocrine acinus are aggranged into____that secrete into ducts
astro