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dens provides a pivot for rotation for the 1st cervical vertebra


articulates with the ribs

thoracic vertebra

articulates with the hip bone laterally


massive vertebrae; weight sustaining


tailbone; vestigal fused vertebrae


supports the head; allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles


seven components; unfused

cervical vertebra

twelve components; unfused

thoracic vertebra

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