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Terms in this set (39)
Define genetics, genome, chromosome, gene, genetic code, genotype, and phenotype
Genetics: Study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated
Gene: Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
Chromosome: Structures containing DNA and regulatory proteins that physically carry hereditary information; chromosomes contain the genes
Genome: All genetic information in a cell
Genetic Code: Set of rules that determines how a sequence of DNA is converted to a protein sequence (amino acids)
Genotype: Genes of an organism; genetic makeup
Phenotype: Expression of genes; manifestation of genotype
Understand DNA structure and know how DNA serves as genetic information
Long strands of nucleotides; complimentary and antiparallel
Describe the major principles of DNA replication. Understand how bacterial DNA uniquely replicates.
Copied by DNA polymerase; Reads 3-5, synthesizes 5-3; leading strand is continuous, lagging strand discontinuously (Okazaki Fragments);
Bacterial is biodirectional
Understand the major principles of protein synthesis, including transcription, RNA processing, and translation
Transcription: Syntesis of complementary strand of RNA (mRNA) from DNA template; RNA polymerase binds to promoter; stops at terminator
Translation: Codons; mRNA associates with ribosomes; start and stop codon
Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes transcription and translation are simultaneous (coupled); eukaryotes exons exit nucleus intron stays inside nucleus, prokaryotes have no nucleus
Study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated
Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
Structures containing DNA and regulatory proteins that physically carry hereditary information; chromosomes contain the genes
All genetic information in a cell
Set of rules that determines how a sequence of DNA is converted to a protein sequence (amino acids)
genes of an organism; genetic makeup
Expression of genes; manifestation of genotype
DNA strands are...
Complimentary and antiparallel and consist of Sugar-phosphate backbone with a nitrogenous base
new DNA contains one conserved "parenteral" and one new strand
DNA is copied by ______________.
How is DNA read?
How is DNA synthesized
True or False: Leading strand is synthesized continuously
True or False: Lagging strand is synthesized continuously
What are Ozaki fragments joined by?
Steps of DNA replication
1. Helicase unwinds DNA in segments
2. Unwound DNA stabilized by proteins
3. Leading strand synthesized 5-3 continuously
4. Lagging strand synthesized discontinuously 5-3
5. DNA ligase joins Ozaki fragments
Replication of Bacterial DNA
Bidirectional; 2 forks, opposite directions
Syntesis of complementary strand RNA (mRNA) from DNA template
RNA polymerase binds to _____.
Transcription stops at _____ sequence.
What comes first, transcription or translation?
Transcription (C before L)
Nucleotide sequence of mRNA dictates amino acid sequence of protein
How many sense codons are there?
How many nonsens (stop) codons are there?
Most amino acids signaled by several alternative codons
Transfer RNA; has complimentary anticodon and amino acid
Place where first tRNA sits
Place where 2nd codon of mRNA pairs with tRNA carrying second amino acid
Where first tRNA now occupies as more tRNA come along
Transcription and translation in prokaryotes
Simultaneous, no nucleus, translation can begin before transcription is complete
Transcription and translation in eukaryotes
Not Coupled; Genes composed of exons and introns transcribe in nucleus; Exons spliced together, only exons leave the nucleus;
What does not coupled mean for transcription and translation in eukaryotes?
That transcription is completed in the nucleus before translation in the cytoplasm
Where does transcription occur?
Where does translation occur?
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Biocalculus: Calculus, Probability, and Statistics for the Life Sciences
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 8/9 Test
Chapter 12 & 13
DNA Replication/ Protein Syntesis/Mutations
Protein Synthesis and Gene Mutations
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