Ap World History Vocab Final
Bloom 2011 APWH Vocab Final (Semester 1).
Terms in this set (176)
The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 B.C.E.; typified by use of crusade stone tools and hunting gathering for subsistence.
This group of people depended on herds of domesticated animals for their livelihood.
The original human economy, ultimately eclipsed by agriculture; groups hunt for meat and forage for grains, nuts, and berries.
The succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, 8500-3500 B.C.E.
Societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non-farming elites, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups.
Code of Hammurabi
First written code of law by King Hammurabi.
Epic of Gilgamesh
An epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing.
Massive towers usually associated with mesopotamian temple complexes.
A form of political organization typical of mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban based king.
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
Mandate of Heaven
Adopted into Chinese culture to explain why floods, famine and other catastrophes occurred (evidence that the gods no longer favored that dynasty, duty of the people to overthrow them).
China's core, between the Yellow and the Yangzi River.
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.
Civil service exams
candidates who pass these exams became an elite member of scholar-officials. only open to men. only wealthy could afford education needed to pass
Advocates believed that people are inherently (born) evil, must learn how to be good. Promoted strict laws and harsh punishments. Rulers should be strong. This philosophy is most associated with the Qin dynasty *laborers on the Great Wall of China.
"The way"; Lao-tzu; sought to live in harmony with nature ("go with the flow"); Chinese world views: the universe reflected a delicate balance between yin (earth, darkness, and female forces) and yang (heaven, light and male forces); not interested in politics or the government, or other "worldly affairs"; western cultural representations of Daoism: Whinnie the Pooh, Yoda; Daoist influences on Chinese culture: architecture-feng shui (wind & water), medical theories/practices-tai chi, acupuncture.
two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, female, and Yang the active, positive force, male
literally means "wind water"; Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, cities. Structures and objects are positioned in a way (often in line with the compass lines) to channel flows of energy in favorable ways. It is not an official religion.
a Chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation and balance and health
A philosophy, not a religion; analects; promoted social harmony via rituals and social relationships-treat those above you in the social hierarchy with respect and set a good example for those below you (includes rulers), proper behavior will bring order, peace, and stability to the Chinese.
Book of Confucian writings by Confucius.
Extreme respect, expected by children of their parents.
performed rough transport and other unskilled jobs and suffered from the lowest possible status; was beneath the peasantry.
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
of or relating to the Vedas or to the ancient Sanskrit in which they were written
a mountain range extending west of the Himalayas
Dynasty established in Indian subcontinent in 4th century B.C.E. following invasion by Alexander the Great.
Dynasty that succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century C.E.; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian sub-continent; less centralized than Mauryan Empire
Indo-European nomadic pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization; militarized society.
the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category
Low social caste in Hindu culture; performed tasks that were considered polluting-street sweeping, removal of human waste, and tanning.
Seasonal winds crossing Indian sub-continent and southeast Asia; during summer bring rains.
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a, a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
The sacred and classical Indian language.
One of the great epic tales from classical India; traces adventures of King Rama and his wife, Sita; written4th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
Founder of Maurya dynasty; established first empire in Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization.
Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire.
Creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born 6th century B.C.E. as son of local ruler among Aryan tribes located near Himalayas; became an ascetic; found enlightenment under bo tree; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires of all earthly things.
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
The caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that once accept one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's ability in order to have a better situation in the next life.
City-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
Where people participate directly in assemblies that make laws and select leaders, rather than electing representatives.
"bread and circuses"
public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire
That culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms.
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits.
A process when people blend new beliefs with the old.
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island.
People of the book
Also called dhimmi; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus.
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among Bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam.
Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam.
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to Bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra).
City located in mountainous region along Red Sea in Arabian peninsula; founded by Umayyad clan of Quraysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of chief religious pilgrimage point in Islam.
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity.
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims.
The political and religious successor to Muhammad.
Political and theological division within Islam; supported the Umayyads.
Also known as Shi'ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali.
Syrian city that was capital of Umayyad caliphate.
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon.
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj.
A Muslim's pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka'ba.
Struggle; often used for wars in defense of the faith.
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
a believer or follower of Islam
Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset.
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.
Triangular sails attached to the masts of dhows by long booms, or yard arms, which extended diagonally high across the fore and aft of the ship.
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
A secondary wife with few rights
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century.
An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God--divine love through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a. Followed an ascetic routine (denial of physical desire to gain a spiritual goal), dedicating themselves to fasting, prayer, meditation on the Qur'an, and the avoidance of sin.
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance.
a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa
African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states.
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout Mali Empire; eventually spread throughout much of west Africa.
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire.
It is the practice of having multiple wives; was common in the African region, and still is today.
Central African royal stone courts
Official language of the Byzantine Empire.
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian.
1054; a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
The predecessor to modern Russia, Kievan Rus' was a medieval state which existed from the end of the 9th century to the middle of the 13th century. Its territory spanned parts of modern Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia.
The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
System of agricultural cultivation by 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one-third fallow.
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a feudal lord in return for military service and loyalty.
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages.
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
an uncompleted series of tales written after 1387 by Geoffrey Chaucer
An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Sworn associations of people in the same business or craft in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system if irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.
Founded c. 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoamerica.
Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
The Aztecs called themselves Mexica.
Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead inca's mummy.
System of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty
Ministry of Rites
Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars.
Title granted to students who passes the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office.
Pure land Buddhism
Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society.
Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south. / Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234.
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long.
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency.
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life to history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
Military leaders of the bakufu (military governments in Japan).
The japanese system of centralized government under a shogun, who exercised actual power while the emperor was reduced to a figurehead.
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100, and 10.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact.
a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the alleged stabilizing effects of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory they conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries
Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368)
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century.
Influential wife of Kublai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese; died c. 1281.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule.
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of western European expansion.
It is a habitual disposition to judge foreign peoples or groups by the standards and practices of one's own culture or ethnic group.