McC Chapter #13
Terms in this set (70)
Clean vulva or prepuce first
Not good for bacterial cultures
Insert a needle through abdominal wall into bladder
Use aseptic technique
Perform on a full bladder
Good for urine cultures
Pass a rubber, plastic or metal catheter through urethra into bladder.
Attempt to do as aseptically as possible.
not good for bacterial cultures
Clean vulva or prepuce
Never do if you suspect obstruction
What is the best time of day to collect a urine sample?
Fluid consumption dilutes the urine
Looking for the presence of cells
Looking for the amount of cells
Three portions of urinalysis
Physical exam of urine?
What is the normal urine volume?
12-20 ml of urine/pound/day
Increase volume of urine production
Refers to frequent urination, often confused with poluria by clients.
nephritis or diabetes
Decreased volume of water production
Complete absence of urine formation or elimination
Renal shutdown or obstructions
What does color of urine depend on?
Concentration of urine
The yellow color in urnine is due to pigments called?
Light or straw color indicates?
Normal in domestic animals
Pale yellow or colorless color indicates?
Renal disease, excessive water intake, diabetes, pyometra.
Dark yellow/yellow brown indicates?
Decrease in fluid intake, Dehydration/fever
Yellow brown/Green yellow indicates?
Bile pigments present
Red or brown indicates?
If cloudy (hematuria), Translucent - hemoglobinuria
Brown or brown/black
Hemoglobin and large amounts of bile
Drugs or bile pigments
Urine may become cloudy after?
standing (may contain cellular debris)
urine is usually clear if normal
Density of a quantity of liquid as compared to distilled water
measures dissolved solids
evaluates renal tubules ability to concentrate or dilute urine.
Normal sg in dogs
Normal sg in cats
Herbivores have alkaline urine
Carnivores have acidic urine
Omnivores have acidic or alkaline
acidic or alkaline depending on what they eat
Normal pH for dog
5.2 - 6.8
Normal pH for cat
Normal pH for horse and cow
Normal pH for pig
Abnormal levels of protein in the urine
Glucosuria or glycosuria
Glucose in the urine
Normal urine is negative
Drugs can cause false positives
Ketones found in urine
Normal animals have very small amounts of ketones in urine
Test for blood in urine detect?
Presence of intact RBC's in the urine
Presence of free hemoglobin in the urine
Presence on myoglobin in the urine
Presence of bilirubin in the blood
Normal dogs, especially males have in their urine because low renal threshold for bilirubin.
NOT FOUND IN CATS, PIGS, SHEEP OR HORSES
liquid portion of urine after it has been centrifuged
RBC's in concentrated urine
Shrink and crenate
RBC's in dilute or alkaline urine
Swell or lyse (colorless rings)
Normal value and abnormal for RBC's
Normal - 2-3 RBC's/HPF
Abnormal - over 5 RBC/HPF
Excessive WBC's found in urine (puss in urine)
Three types of epithelial cells
Squamous, Transitional, Renal
Largest epithelial cell, flat with irregular shape with straight edges distinct corners and not found in cystocentesis samples
Round epithelial cell may by pear shaped. Granular cytoplasm with small nucleus is larger than wbc, but wide variations in size.
Smallest epithelial cell are slightly larger than WBC. Generally round have a large nucleus are rarely found.
Where are casts formed?
Lumen of DCT of kidney
Clear colorless, highly refractile cast. Difficult to see and must use dim light easier to see in stained slide.
Hyaline casts containing granules. Most common is normal in small amounts. In high amounts indicates severe kidney damage.
Comprised of epithelial cells are usually seen with granular cast. Can indicate acute nephritis and/or degeneration of renal tubules.
Casts containing WBC's. Inflammation in renal tubules of kidney
Deep yellow to orange. Indicates bleeding from kidney
Resembles hyaline casts, but are wider with square ends. Have a dull waxy appearance. May indicate chronic, severe degeneration of the renal tubules.
Small droplets of fat
Must examine fresh urine
bacteria multiply if sitting in room temp.
may contaiminate if pass through vulva or prepuce
small, reported as few moderate or many
Presence of crystals in urine. Is also known as crystalline.
occasional,moderate or many
Triple phosphate crystals (struvites)
Coffin lids are 3-6 sided, colorless prisms. Found in alkaline urine are the most common.
Phosphates- found in alkaline urine/are granular
Urates- found in acidic urine
Small colorless envelopes with x in the center. found in acidic urine also seen in ethylene glycol toxicity. Two forms.
Small round sectioned centered is found in acid urine
Appear speculated and spindled
found in acid urine
Hexagon shaped (6 sided)
May indicate renal tubular dysfunction
found in acid urine
Uric acid crystals
yellow or red brown in color. shapes are rhombic or irregular plates, prisms, diamonds, rosettes, or oval with paired ends.