Under anarchy, one state's efforts to protect itself jeopardize the security of others.
Security Dilemma (Significance)
For Waltz, the security dilemma is a crucial element in explaining why war occurs under the condition of anarchy.
State of Innocence (Definition)
A state of purity, where identity is sure and every need is answered.
State of Innocence (Significance)
For Fukuyama's theory of Globalization, we will return to a state of innocence at the end of history.
Democratic Peace Theory (Definition)
Democratic states will rarely go to war against one another.
Democratic Peace Theory (Significance)
Introduced in class in order to illustrate a theory of conflict and war lodged at Kenneth Waltz's second level of analysis, the level of the state or national society.
The highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of identity.
Under Huntington, civilization is the key concept to describing a new historical reality in which the major conflict is between cultural giants called civilizations rather than against states and ideologies.
A process of reconciling the differences between the thesis and the antithesis in order to find the higher truth, which leads to the end of history.
Dialect is crucial to Fukuyama's argument that the defeat of Marxist-Leninism and the success of liberal ideology demonstrate the end of history.
Brute Fact (Definition)
In contrast to a social fact, a brute fact is a material object that will not change and is not dependent upon social interpretation and agreement.
Brute Fact (Significance)
Crucial in Wendt's theory of idealism. Anarchy, being a social fact as opposed to a brute fact, is a product of human action and interaction and is subject to change.
Empty Core of Liberalism (Definition)
Liberalism leaves desires unfulfilled, creating internal conflicts and contradictions.
Empty Core of Liberalism (Significance)
Fukuyama's myth that liberalism is the end of history is challenged with the Core of Liberalism as it shows that liberal capitalism leaves desires and contradictions and thus isn't perfect.
A philosophical movement characterized by an emphasis upon science and the scientific method as the only dependable sources of knowledge.
Constructivists believe that positivism is used too much in traditional IR theory, and thus turned to Hermeneutics to study how we interpret reality.
Gender Variable (Definition)
Jones's myth that gender is an objective variable and is external to the perspectives of IR theory.
Gender Variable (Significance)
The central myth of Jones's argument which critiques feminist contributions to traditional IR theory, and is crucial to Weber's examination of Jones's myth.
Domestic Analogy (Definition)
If you can have a well-organized society within a state, then you can have a well-organized society between states.
Domestic Analogy (Significance)
Kegley's response to realism in his idealist myth that states that war can be eliminated through international cooperation and thus anarchy doesn't necessarily need to be replaced.
Fault Lines (Definition)
The borders between seven or eight large civilizations where conflict has historically occurred
Fault Lines (Significance)
A key point in Huntington's central myth of modernization and development theory, which helps demonstrate that conflicts aren't just between ideologies and kingdoms anymore, but rather between large civilizations.
Death of the Author (Definition)
The interpretation of a social fact as a brute fact due to the lack of a known
Death of the Author (Significance)
Used by Wendt to critique traditional IR theory by claiming traditional IR theory falsely looks at international anarchy as a brute fact with no authorship in the states, but also used in Weber's criticism of Wendt's constructivist theory because he fails to look at what makes up a state and how it is consistently changing.
Historical Materialism (Definition)
Another way to look at the end of history myth usually associated with Marxism that focuses on social change connected to economic and class struggles.
Historical Materialism (Significance)
Historical materialism can be interpreted as a general framework in which Weber's critique of Fukuyama is based.
A view that human history as a whole has a purpose that moves toward an end that the whole human species will share.
Grounded in Judeo-Christian ideology, Hegel and Fukuyama's dialectics have a viewpoint that history has a teleology that moves mankind toward a necessary end.
Reshapes and redefines identity from the viewpoint of multiple different cultures that exist in one single identity.
Weber's critique of Huntington's modernization and development theory, specifically through the Khan children inEast is East, which criticizes Huntington's idea of having only one identity.
Collective Security (Definition)
An institutional arrangement where states join together to safeguard the territorial independence and security of all parties. All signatories defend one and all against aggression directed toward anyone (Ex: The U.N. Security Council).
Collective Security (Significance)
Criticized and opposed by realist thinking, the notion of collective security is central to idealist interpretations of a path towards peace.
Dependency Theory (Definition)
Attempts to explain underdevelopment and poverty in third world nations from a systemic perspective, in which the poverty in third world countries is dependent upon the third world country's place in the global economy.
Dependency Theory (Significance)
Critiques modernization and development theory's narrow point of view of looking at each state as an individual case rather than interconnected to other countries worldwide.
Liberal Feminism (Definition)
A philosophy dedicated to removing barriers and obstacles in the world so that women can have the same opportunities as men.
Liberal Feminism (Significance)
Weber critiques liberal feminism in IR theory because it is too easily attacked by theorists like Jones due to its reduction of gender to a variable.
End of History (Definition)
An end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization that has a shared identity, and will lead to peace of mankind, of which is the last stage of the dialectic.
End of History (Significance)
Through Fukuyama's argument of an end of history, he claims that due to the fall of Communism, liberal democracy remained uncontested as the prevailing thesis of governmental fulfilling all human needs.
Rational Actor Model (Definition)
A model of decision making, that actors are well-bounded, act in a unitary manner, that will weigh their options, considers the outcomes, and then makes a selection with their best interest in mind.
Rational Actor Model (Significance)
In relation to the security dilemma, it is when an individual actor acts in self-interest and not for the benefit of the whole. Feminists believed that the traditional rationality is actually what contributes to the patriarchy; rationality is defined as what's best for men.