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41 terms

Chapter 15 Chemical Senses

Sensation and Perception 8ed., Goldstein. These vocabulary words are copied and pasted directly from the book's website.
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2-deoxyglucose technique
A procedure that involves injecting a radioactive 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) molecule into an animal and exposing the animal to oriented stimuli. The 2DG is taken up by neurons that respond to the orientation. This procedure is used to visualize orientation columns in the cortex.
across-fiber patterns
The pattern of firing that a stimulus causes across a number of neurons. This is the same thing as distributed coding.
amiloride
A substance that blocks the flow of sodium into taste receptors.
amygdala
A subcortical structure that is involved in emotional responding and in processing olfactory signals.
anosmia
Loss of the ability to smell due to injury or infection.
bimodal neuron
A neuron that responds to stimuli associated with more than one sense.
calcium imaging
A method of measuring receptor activity by using fluorescence to measure the concentration of calcium inside the receptor. This technique has been used to measure the activation of olfactory receptor neurons.
detection threshold
The minimum amount of energy that can be detected. The detection threshold for smell is the lowest concentration at which an odorant can be detected. This threshold is distinguished from the recognition threshold, which requires a higher concentration of odorant.
flavor
The perception that occurs from the combination of taste and olfaction.
frontal operculum cortex
An area in the frontal lobe of the cortex that receives signals from the taste system.
glomeruli
Small structures in the olfactory bulb that receive signals from similar olfactory receptor neurons. One function of each glomerulus is to collect information about a small group of odorants.
insula
An area in the frontal lobe of the cortex that receives signals from the taste system.
macrosmatic
Having a keen sense of smell that is important to an animal's survival.
menstrual synchrony
Women who live together experience menstrual periods that begin at approximately the same time. There is evidence that the sense of smell is involved in determining this effect.
microsmatic
Having a weak sense of smell. This usually occurs in animals like humans, in which the sense of smell is not crucial for survival.
nasal pharynx
A passageway that connects the mouth cavity and the nasal cavity.
neurogenesis
The cycle of birth, development, and death of a neuron. This process occurs for the receptors for olfaction and taste.
nontaster
A person who cannot taste the compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC).
nucleus of the solitary tract
The nucleus in the brain stem that receives signals from the tongue, the mouth, and the larynx transmitted by the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves.
olfactometer
A device that presents olfactory stimuli with great precision.
olfactory bulb
The structure that receives signals directly from the olfactory receptors. The olfactory bulb contains glomeruli, which receive these signals from the receptors.
olfactory mucosa
The region inside the nose that contains the receptors for the sense of smell.
olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs)
Sensory neurons located in the olfactory mucosa that contain the olfactory receptors.
olfactory receptors
A protein string that responds to odor stimuli.
optical imaging
A technique to measure the activity of large areas of the cortex by measuring the intensity of red light reflected from the cortex.
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
An area in the frontal lobe, near the eyes, that receives signals originating in the olfactory receptors. Also known as the secondary olfactory cortex.
papillae
Ridges and valleys on the tongue, some of which contain taste buds. There are four types of papillae: filiform, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate.
pheromone
Chemical signal released by an individual that affects the physiology and behavior of other individuals.
piriform cortex (PC)
An area under the temporal lobe that receives signals from glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Also called the primary olfactory cortex.
primary olfactory cortex
A small area under the temporal lobe that receives signals from glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Also called the piriform cortex.
receptor site
Small area on the postsynaptic neuron that is sensitive to specific neurotransmitters.
recognition profile
The pattern of activation of olfactory receptors caused by a particular odorant.
recognition threshold
For smell, the concentration at which the quality of an odor can be recognized.
retronasal route
The opening from the oral cavity, through the nasal pharnyx, into the nasal cavity. This route is the basis for the way smell combines with taste to create flavor.
secondary olfactory cortex
An area in the frontal lobe, near the eyes, that receives signals originating in the olfactory receptors. Also known as the orbitofrontal cortex.
supertaster
A person who is especially sensitive to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), a bitter substance.
taste bud
A structure located within papillae on the tongue that contains the taste cells.
taste cell
Cell located in taste buds that causes the transduction of chemical to electrical energy when chemicals contact receptor sites or channels located at the tip of this cell.
taste pore
An opening in the taste bud through which the tips of taste cells protrude. When chemicals enter a taste pore, they stimulate the taste cells and result in transduction.
taster
A person who can taste the compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC).
video microscopy
A technique that has been used to take pictures of papillae and taste buds on the tongue.