A procedure that involves injecting a radioactive 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) molecule into an animal and exposing the animal to oriented stimuli. The 2DG is taken up by neurons that respond to the orientation. This procedure is used to visualize orientation columns in the cortex.
The pattern of firing that a stimulus causes across a number of neurons. This is the same thing as distributed coding.
A subcortical structure that is involved in emotional responding and in processing olfactory signals.
A method of measuring receptor activity by using fluorescence to measure the concentration of calcium inside the receptor. This technique has been used to measure the activation of olfactory receptor neurons.
The minimum amount of energy that can be detected. The detection threshold for smell is the lowest concentration at which an odorant can be detected. This threshold is distinguished from the recognition threshold, which requires a higher concentration of odorant.
frontal operculum cortex
An area in the frontal lobe of the cortex that receives signals from the taste system.
Small structures in the olfactory bulb that receive signals from similar olfactory receptor neurons. One function of each glomerulus is to collect information about a small group of odorants.
Women who live together experience menstrual periods that begin at approximately the same time. There is evidence that the sense of smell is involved in determining this effect.
Having a weak sense of smell. This usually occurs in animals like humans, in which the sense of smell is not crucial for survival.
The cycle of birth, development, and death of a neuron. This process occurs for the receptors for olfaction and taste.
nucleus of the solitary tract
The nucleus in the brain stem that receives signals from the tongue, the mouth, and the larynx transmitted by the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves.
The structure that receives signals directly from the olfactory receptors. The olfactory bulb contains glomeruli, which receive these signals from the receptors.
olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs)
Sensory neurons located in the olfactory mucosa that contain the olfactory receptors.
A technique to measure the activity of large areas of the cortex by measuring the intensity of red light reflected from the cortex.
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
An area in the frontal lobe, near the eyes, that receives signals originating in the olfactory receptors. Also known as the secondary olfactory cortex.
Ridges and valleys on the tongue, some of which contain taste buds. There are four types of papillae: filiform, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate.
Chemical signal released by an individual that affects the physiology and behavior of other individuals.
piriform cortex (PC)
An area under the temporal lobe that receives signals from glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Also called the primary olfactory cortex.
primary olfactory cortex
A small area under the temporal lobe that receives signals from glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Also called the piriform cortex.
Small area on the postsynaptic neuron that is sensitive to specific neurotransmitters.
The pattern of activation of olfactory receptors caused by a particular odorant.
For smell, the concentration at which the quality of an odor can be recognized.
The opening from the oral cavity, through the nasal pharnyx, into the nasal cavity. This route is the basis for the way smell combines with taste to create flavor.
secondary olfactory cortex
An area in the frontal lobe, near the eyes, that receives signals originating in the olfactory receptors. Also known as the orbitofrontal cortex.
A person who is especially sensitive to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), a bitter substance.
Cell located in taste buds that causes the transduction of chemical to electrical energy when chemicals contact receptor sites or channels located at the tip of this cell.
An opening in the taste bud through which the tips of taste cells protrude. When chemicals enter a taste pore, they stimulate the taste cells and result in transduction.