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Terms in this set (63)
Maintenance of a constant internal environment
Define steady state
-Non-homeostatic constant conditions
-Balance between the demand placed on body and the physiological response to those demands
Look at graph on body core temp during exercise
What is the goal of the body?
Return to homeostasis or maintain at steady state levels
What are the 5 steps on the biological control system?
1-Increased blood glucose following carb meal
2-Pancreatic cells detect change in blood glucose concentration
3-Pancreas releases insulin which stimulates glucose uptake into cells
4-Blood glucose returns to resting values
What are the 3 principles of Enzyme function?
1-Energy of activation and reaction rate
2-Specificity and conservation
How are carbohydrates a primary fuel source during exercise?
-Glycogen depletion and fatigue
-Diet and glycogen concentration
-Muscle glycogen and performance
What are the recommended darn and fat needs?
-CHO: 50% of daily intake
-CHO: 60% for physically active
What is the RDA for protein?
What are the 3 ways the ATP can form?
-Oxidative formation of ATP
Which of these are anaerobic pathways?
-CP breakdown and glycolysis
Which of these are aerobic pathways?
Look at graph for Time x Relative Energy Potential
What is the equation for ATP?
ATP --> ADP + Pi + energy
What is the equation for a CP breakdown?
CP + ADP <--> ATP + C
What catalyzes CP?
When do you rely on CP?
-Onset of exercise
-Short duration-high intensity
What is the rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis? What are the substrates of glycolysis? What are the products?
-Rapid production of ATP
What are the 2 fats of pyruvate?
-Pyruvate conversion to lactate
-Pyruvate uptake into mitochondria
What is the function of NAD?
How is lactate used as a fuel?
-Used in local mitochondria
-Diffuse into blood and go to other muscle (or muscle tissue)
-Blood -> Liver and glucose
What does the mitochondrial shuttle system provide?
Provides substrates for electron-transport chains
What are the feedforward signals for glycolysis?
How does exercise affect glycolysis?
-High intensity exercise strengthens signal
-Exercise is going to increase glucose uptake, glycogen breakdown
What are the fates of the glycogen metabolism?
-Either go through glycolysis or be stored as glycogen (determined by energy demand)
What are the enzymes of glycogen?
What are the substrates of the Kreb's Cycle?
-Acetyl CoA from Glucose and Fatty acids
What are the products of the Kreb's Cycle?
What is the acronym for IDH? What activates IDH?
-Activated by ADP and Ca
What are triglycerides? Where are they stored?
-Adipose cells and Intramuscular triglycerides
Where do triglycerides travel?
-Fatty acids to mitochondria
-Glycerol to liver
What are the substrates and functions of Beta-Oxidation?
Fatty acid chain
What are the products of Beta-Oxidation?
Where is the Electron Transport Chain located?
Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
What are the substrates of the ETC? What are the products?
Why is O2 critical in the ETC?
-O2 is the receptor; it can accept electrons in Mitochondrial matrix from the proteins that were in the ETC
What are the effects of training on Mitochondria?
-No change in specific activity
-More developed mitochondria
Define VO2 and VCO2
-VO2: Volume Oxygen
-VCO2: Volume Carbon Dioxide
What does oxygen deficit describe?
A way to describe the interaction between energy demand and metabolic pathway response
Define Oxygen Deficit
The lag in VO2 at the onset of exercise
What is EPOC (acronym)?
Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption
What is the cause of EPOC?
Increased O2 need during recovery not O2 payback
What is the impact of conditioning and/or intensity of work bout?
-Magnitude of metabolic changes
-Mass of muscle utilized
What are the slow-set factors contributing to EPOC?
-Re synthesis of PC in muscle
-Restoration of muscle and blood oxygen stores
What are the fast-set factors contributing to EPOC?
-Elevated body temperature
-Post-exercise elevation of HR and breathing
Define lactate threshold
Point of lactate accumulation
What are the possible causes of the Lactate Threshold?
-Increased glycolytic activity
-Recruitment of type II fibers
-Reduced lactate removal
What is the acronym for RER?
Respiratory Exchange Ratio
What is the equation of RER?
Why do we use more CHO than Fat?
-Motor unit recruitment
What are the training effects of Exercise Intensity and Fuel Selection?
-Shift in crossover point
-Role of mitochondrial adaptations
What affects the magnitude of hormone effects?
What is the endocrine gland?
Pancreas secretes glucagon
What is the stimulation of glucagon?
Reduction in blood glucose concentrations would stimulate glucagon to be released
What is glucagon's purpose?
Raise blood glucose to homeostasis levels
What are glucagon's target tissues?
Muscle cells, liver
What is glucagon's response to exercise?
Glucagon increases during exercise
What endocrine glands secretes epinephrine?
What is the stimuli of epinephrine?
What is the function of GLUT-4?
Transports things in skeletal muscle (moves stuff inside cell)
What 2 things can maximally stimulate glucose uptake?
Insulin and contraction
What occurs to insulin during exercise? What occurs to blood glucose levels during exercise?
-Insulin: during exercise the insulin levels decrease
-Glucose: during exercise blood glucose levels stay relatively constant in a healthy individual
What is the definition of fatigue?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Section 1 Exam Notes
Section 2 Exam
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