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38 terms

Chapter 3

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Cells are related to the nutrients we eat in foods because
nutrients can affect how the genes in cells work
A gene variation in the cells can occasionally cause an inborn error of metabolism. If this is discovered by a healthcare provider, the advice would be to
eat a special diet that will minimize its potential harm to the body
The importance of the lungs in the circulatory system is that they are responsible for
adding oxygen to the blood
Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by
transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues
A person can eat when hunger is absent because
the conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals
During the fight-or-flight reaction to stress the nervous system reacts by
releasing stored glucose from the liver
What is the role of the phagocytes and lymphocytes in protecting the body from invading organisms?
killer T-cells seek out and destroy all foreign particles with the same identity
When given a choice between tasting a snack of cookies, potato chips, or dill pickles, most people would
select the cookies because of our preference for sweet tastes
Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of
peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract
Which of the following statements is true regarding the timing of meals?
Timing of meals is important to feeling well
Chronic, low-grade inflammation in chronic disease is of interest because
it foretells of the risk of death from the disease
Digestion of macronutrients begins in the mouth with enzyme action on
starches by designated carbohydrases and fats by designated lipases
The digestive juices in the digestive tract include
pancreatic juice, which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine
The vast majority of fat digestion takes place in the
small intestine with lipases released by the gallbladder
You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send _____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.
bile
As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the
large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water
As the villi in the small intestine are exposed to nutrients
they will preferentially absorb a greater percentage of deficient nutrients
What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?
the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them
Which of the following would occur in a malnourished child?
The absorptive surface of the small intestine would shrink
Which of the following strategies should be used by someone experiencing heartburn?
Drink liquids an hour before or after meals and eat smaller meals
If you are taking medications to treat the discomfort caused by heartburn, it is important to know that
antacids will only temporarily relieve pain by neutralizing stomach acid for a while
Which of the following advice would you give to a friend suffering from constipation?
Consume foods with adequate fiber and drink enough water
When the colon is not functioning properly, complications that may arise include
irritable bowel syndrome caused by stress and lack of physical activity
The main purpose of the kidneys in the body is to
remove everyday wastes and water from the body
A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy that this person would need to survive?
fat
Which of the following should be consumed at intervals throughout the day?
carbohydrate-containing foods
Glycogen is stored in the body for future use. If it is drawn upon it will
provide energy for cell activities during extended between-meal intervals
Excess nutrients are stored in various body tissues for future use. An example of this would be
calcium, which is stored in reserves in the skeletal system
If you do not eat on a regular basis throughout the day, the effect on the body will be
a coordinated effort to draw stored energy from various parts of the body
Which of the following deliver(s) one-half ounce of ethanol?
5 ounces and 12 ounces of beer
A person can become intoxicated almost immediately when drinking, especially if:
the stomach is empty
Which of the following organs makes almost all of the body's alcohol-processing machinery?
liver
Which of the following restores sobriety in someone who has been drinking alcohol?
time
Alcohol affects body functions in all of the following ways except
it slows down the synthesis of fatty acids
Alcohol's effect on nutrition is important because
alcohol causes the liver to expel folate into the blood for excretion by the kidneys
Although the recommendation is to drink in moderation if consuming alcohol, the following problem may still need to be considered
moderation is difficult to define because of differences in tolerance among people
You are concerned about a classmate who is binge drinking on a regular basis and want to let him know about long-term complications that may rise from that practice. What would you tell him to try to convince him to cut back on drinking?
excessive alcohol intake can lead to deterioration of skeletal and heart muscle
A friend of yours is considering drinking one glass of wine a day because she has heard that it may reduce her risk of heart attacks. What information would you provide to her?
in middle-aged populations, taking 1-2 drinks a day may benefit the heart