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the most superior part of the brain; enclose and obscure most of the brain stem
Somatic Sensory Area
located in the parietal lobe; impulses traveling from the body's sensory receptors (except for special sense) are localized and interpreted in this area of the brain; allows you to recognize pain, coldness, or a light touch
posterior to the central sulcus; allows the senses of touch, pain, and temperature to be interpreted here; has sensory cortex
bordering the lateral sulcus on the sides of the brain; where the auditory area is located
Primary Motor Area
allows us to consciously move our skeletal muscles is anterior to the central sulcus in the frontal lobe
contains the primary motor area; in front of brain; where your personality is "located"
a specialized area that is very involved in our ability to speak and is found at the base of the precentral gyrus; located in only one cerebral hemisphere (usually the left)
located at the junction of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and allows one to sound out words; language comprehension
the gray area of the central nervous system; contains unmyelinated nerve fibers and nerve cell bodies
gray matter of the cerebrum; is highly ridged and convoluted, providing more room for the thousands of neurons found there
Cerebral White Matter
most of the remaining cerebral hemisphere tissue that is composed of fiber tracts (bundles of nerve fibers) carrying impulses to or from the cortex
very large fiber tract that connects the cerebral hemispheres above the structures of the brain stem; allows the cerebral hemispheres to communicate with one another
that part of the forebrain between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain including the thalamus, the third ventricle, and the hypothalamus
"emotional-visceral brain," involves sex drives, thirst, appetite, sex, pain, pleasure, and emotions; regulates hormones
the neuroendocrine gland located beneath the brain that serves a variety of functions including regulation of the gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, water balance, and lactation
reflex centers involved in olfaction (the sense of smell) that bulge from the floor of the hypothalamus posterior to the pituitary gland
a relatively small part of the brain stem that extends form the mammillary bodies to the pons inferiorly
the brain area connecting the medulla with the midbrain, providing linkage between upper and lower levels of the central nervous system
most inferior part of the brain stem; merges into the spinal cord below; important fiber tract that contains centers that control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting
gray matter in which the neurons are involved in motor control of the visceral organs
special group of reticular formation neurons that plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles
part of the hindbrain; involved in producing smoothly coordinated skeletal muscle activity
the outermost and toughest of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord
innermost membrane of the brain that is delicate and clings tightly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord, following every fold
specialized projections of the arachnoid membrane that portrude through the dura mater; allows the cerebrospinal fluid to be absorbed into the venous blood in the dural sinuses
the fluid produced in the cerebral ventricles; fills the ventricles and surrounds the central nervous system
a mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the blood into brain tissues
occurs when brain injury is slight; victim may be dizzy, "see stars," or lose consciousness briefly, but no permanent brain damage occurs
commonly called strokes; occurs when blood circulation to a brain area is blocked and vital brain tissue dies
glistening white continuation of the brain stem; provides a two-way conduction pathway to and from the brain and is a major reflex center
allows fibers of cell bodies of the sensory interneurons to get to the spinal cord; fuses with ventral roots to form spinal nerves
sends out axons of the somatic (voluntary) nervous system to go out of the cord; fuses with dorsal roots to form spinal nerves
Posterior, Lateral, and Anterior Columns
contains a number of fiber tracts made up of axons with the same destination and fucntion; tracts conducting sensory impulses to the brain are sensory, or afferent, tracts; tracts carrying impulses from the brain to skeletal muscles are motor, or efferent, tracts
nerves containing the processes of motor and sensory neurons; their impulses travel to and from the central nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
the division of the nervous system that functions involuntarily; innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
a division of the autonomic nervous system; opposes parasympathetic functions; called the flight-or-flight division
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