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20 terms

Chapter 10: Nature, structure and organisation of the genetic material

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Coding region
Part of a gene that contains the coded information for making a polypeptide chain
Dihybrid
A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
Dissociation
Separation of double-stranded DNA molecule into its single strands, which occurs when hydrogen bonds stabilizing the two strands are broken, such as by heating
D-loop
Region of mtDNA, also known as the control region, or the hypervariable region
Dominant
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
Exon
part of the coding region of a gene that is both transcribed and translated
Frameshift
Mutation that occurs when a single base is added or deleted from DNA; causes a shift in the reading of codons by one base
Gene sequencing
process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
Genomics
Study of an organism's genome
Germline mutation
Change that occurs in the DNA of a gamete, or cell that can give rise to a gamete, and can be transmitted to the next generation
Human genome project
A project coordinated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the entire nucleotide sequence of the human chromosomes
Hybridisation
Pairing between single-stranded complementary DNA segments from organisms from the same or even different species
Introns
Parts of the coding region of a gene that are transcribed but not translated
Monohybrid
A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
Promoters
Part of the upstream flanking region of a gene containing base sequences that control the activity of that gene
Proteomics
The study of the proteomes, the complete array of proteins produced by an organism
Recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Single nucleotide polymerisation
Genetic differences between individuals resulting from single base changes in their DNA sequences
Transcriptomics
involves large-scale analysis of messenger RNAs transcribed from active genes to follow when, where, and under what conditions genes are expressed.
Triplet code
Identifies that the genetic code consists of triplets or three-base sequences