16 terms

WMST First Wave, Second Wave, Third Wave.

Final Exam
Rebecca West
Feminism is the radical notion that women are people." And "I myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is; I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat."
Estelle Freedman
The Historical Case for Feminism - explains why and how a feminist revolution occurred. wants to know both "What about women?" and "Which women?" in "No Turning Back"
Equal Worth
a belief that women and men are inherently of, (worth the same in different ways than man, different from equality)
social movements
from rallies to individual daily actions
Male Privilege
benefits and power from institutional inequalities. Individuals and groups may be privileged but not realize, recognize or want it
Political equality; intersecting social hierarchies
(genders intersection with other social hierarchies like race)
Early 1900s:
1st split SPLIT between the fight for political rights or for maternal-ism
After 1920
right to vote: The second SPLIT is between equity versus difference (concerns different for women than man; these are the maternal-ist)
Mid 20th century
feminism as a "big tent" term, maternalism not the same as struggle for political rights
Late 20th century
feminism as self-description, liberation of women and girls from discrimination based on gender. Waves are used to identify peak moments and help delineate issues that are important to feminism at different historical periods.
first wave
organizations and projects undertaken by suffragists and women's rights advocates from the 1830s to the 1920s
second wave
___wave; 1970s; buried race issue, thought of as white middle-class; marital-rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence weren't socially visible. Paid little attention to lower social class problems, or problems that did not affect them. Equality feminists were more likely to be interested in payment of social security benefits and the premiums charged for life insurance policies
third wave
feminist perspectives adopted in the 1990s, often by younger women, with an emphasis on personal voice and multiple identities, intersectionality, ambiguity, and contradictions

Waves show change, change = historical relevance, waves show peak moments within a movement
Benefits: Waves help us delineate issues that were important to feminism at different historical periods, waves show us that feminism is a changing, historically-relevant and grounded social movement
Problems: dominant issues of the feminist waves tend to be more centered on the concerns of white, middle-class women in the US (no focus on those not living in US or of a different nationality; waves suggest there is a fixed quality to the movement (issues important to the first wave aren't still important to 3rd), compartmentalizes the movement
First Wave History
Rose with the industrial movement
Major accomplishments (US): higher education for women, medical and teaching professions, married women's property rights, some improvements in divorce and custody, voting rights (1920)
Concerned middle-class women — most of these women were abolitionists but didn't always view African American women as equals but wanted to lift them in maternal-ist ways
White women saw slavery as an issue, but it wasn't about achieving equality, but rather perceiving slave women as childlike figures that needed to be saved (maternalism)
"do everything" motto, do everything to protect women and children, women concerned with destructive power of alcohol, focus on property and custody rights for women, suffrage, age of consent law, women's education, saw a correlation between drinking and domestic violence; leader of Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was Frances Willard, Susan B. Anthony was a member
headed by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, predominantly white, middle-class, Quaker women, abolition and women's rights needed to be tackled at the same time