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Carl Woese

proposed that all life be categorized into three large "domains" a taxonomic unit above "kingdoms"

In the binomial naming system for species

only the genus name is capitalized

the total # of species of animals living today and already extinct are both in the


in IB104 this semester we have covered 16 animal phyla. This is ____% of the total # of animal phyla generally recognized by zoologists


which of the following is a homologous character evolving from a common ancestor by direct and shared descent and therefore be a reliable & informative character in building a phylogeny?

the forearm bones of crocodiles and mammals

the nervous system of animals develops from epithelial cells or the epidermis which is part of the


Although the earliest animal fossils are from the ediacaran period, we are confident from biochemical phylogenetic methods that animals in fact evolved earlier during the ____ Era very approx ___ BYA

Neoproterozoic, 1 BYA

the importance of choanoflagellates to our understanding of animal evolution is that they

are the closest relatives to animals, are protists that often form multicellular colonies, closely resemble choanocytes of sponges

which of the following is NOT a determining factor for microscope resolution

the length of the microscope stage

which major adaptation evolved in conjuction with bilateral symmetry


trichoplax adhaerens is the only named species representing the animal phylum


although they are tiny, corals build some of the largest structures on the planet, coral reefs. they are members of the phylum:


which statement is NOT true of the comb jellies or ctenophora

they are always sessile

in addition to being bi-laterally symmetrical, all members of the subkingdom bilateria are


flatworms have no need of a

respiratory system

many animal parasites that infect mammals exhibit complicated lifecycles. In the case of the trematode worms that cause schistosomiasis, the secondary host is a


the first animal to have its genome completely sequenced was a member of the phylum


the phylum name tardigrada literally means

slow walker

when you go to a seafood restaurant and order a seafood platter that includes shrimp, scallops, lobster, and squid you are eating representatives of ___ animal phyla


chitons have a radula for scraping food off of surfaces and therefore are unusual members of the phylum


the remarkable similarities of the squid and mammalian eyes do not include

the mechanism of the development of the eye

onychophorans or velvet worms are

found only in Africa, Australia, and South America

although they have shells the barnacles are actually members of the phylum


the arthropod class trilobita are perhaps most famous for

having gone extinct approx 220 MYA

the chelicerata are named for their


which is not a feature of adult echinoderms


the notochord that helps define the phylum chordata and gives them their name is

a dorsal rod-like structure supporting the length of the animal

adult sea squirts have two siphons, features that resemble those of sponges and cephalopods, but they are a subphylum of the chordata known as the


lampreys and hagfish are grouped together in agnatha by virtue of having

no jaws

which vertebrate class is distinguished by the evolution of the amnion, a specialized membrane surrounding the developing egg that prevents dessication


mammals are definde by

having hair, feeding milk to their young, several differently shaped kind of teeth

when biochemical polymers are broken down into their constituent monomers during digestiong, water molecules attack and break the covalent bonds holding the monomers together, hence these reactions are called ____ reactions


in animals while carbohydrates are primarily for energy storage, they can also be structural in the form of


fatty acids consist of

a long hydrocarbon chain with an acid group at the end

the central carbon in an amino acid is covalently bonded to

a hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an R group

the 2ndary structures of proteins are maintained by

hydrogen bonds

3 parts of a nucleotide are

phosphates, pentose sugar, a ringed base

in an electron microscope the electrons are focused using lenses that consist of


Theodore Schwann is remembered for championing the theory that animals are made up of cells and today his name is used for a special type of cell which

coats the axons of nerve cells

E. coli bacteria are useful standard for size measurements of cells because they are approx __ microns long

1 micron long

most animal cells have

1 nucleus and many mitochondria

the bumps on the surface of the rough ER that make it look rough are


microfilaments involved in the cytoskeleton of animal cells are constructed primarily out of a single type of protein called


phospholipids consist of

a phosphate group and two fatty acid chains

phospholipid bilayers are permeable to ___ but not to ____

small neutral molecules, but not ions

a single cell fresh water protist is transfered into salt water. what is most likely to happen?

the cell will shrink

molecules that are moved across membranes by transport proteins include


cystic fibrosis involves mutation of the gene encoding a channel/transporter that moves ___ ions across membranes


after enguling a bacterium in a membrane bound vesicle, WBCs digest the bacterium by fusing the vesicle with

a lysosome

animals are

heterotrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular

Carl Linneaus

proposed the binomial naming system for a species in his book Systema Naturae

The increasing complexity of animal embryos during early development is reflected in these three names in this order:

morula, blastula, gastrula

the earliest animal fossils are from the ___ period approx___ MYA

ediacaran period approx 600-550

only two animal phyla exhibit no symmetry of any kind. they are:

placozoa and porifera

Sponges defend themselves by

having carbonate spicules and chemical defenses

phylum cnidaria inclues

hydras, jellyfish, corals

Huge circular coral reef atolls in the ocean result from

complete erosion of the original island around which the circling coral reef formed

the bilateria or triploblastic animals can confidently be divided up into the "superphyla"

protostomes and deuterostomes

flatworms are

turbellaria or planarians

elephantiasis is caused by ___ and transmitted by ____

nematodes, transmitted by mosquitoes

tardigrada literally means

slow walker

leeches are part of the phylum


trilobita went extinct


hugh's fav insect of order Odonata

damselflies and dragonflies

deuterostomes comprise the __ and ___

echinoderms and chordates

cystic fibrosis involves mutation of the gene encoding a channel/transporter that moves ___ ions across membranes


glycolysis occurs in the


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