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67 terms

IB104 Practice Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Carl Woese
proposed that all life be categorized into three large "domains" a taxonomic unit above "kingdoms"
In the binomial naming system for species
only the genus name is capitalized
the total # of species of animals living today and already extinct are both in the
millions
in IB104 this semester we have covered 16 animal phyla. This is ____% of the total # of animal phyla generally recognized by zoologists
50%
which of the following is a homologous character evolving from a common ancestor by direct and shared descent and therefore be a reliable & informative character in building a phylogeny?
the forearm bones of crocodiles and mammals
the nervous system of animals develops from epithelial cells or the epidermis which is part of the
ectoderm
Although the earliest animal fossils are from the ediacaran period, we are confident from biochemical phylogenetic methods that animals in fact evolved earlier during the ____ Era very approx ___ BYA
Neoproterozoic, 1 BYA
the importance of choanoflagellates to our understanding of animal evolution is that they
are the closest relatives to animals, are protists that often form multicellular colonies, closely resemble choanocytes of sponges
which of the following is NOT a determining factor for microscope resolution
the length of the microscope stage
which major adaptation evolved in conjuction with bilateral symmetry
cephalization
trichoplax adhaerens is the only named species representing the animal phylum
placozoa
although they are tiny, corals build some of the largest structures on the planet, coral reefs. they are members of the phylum:
cnidaria
which statement is NOT true of the comb jellies or ctenophora
they are always sessile
in addition to being bi-laterally symmetrical, all members of the subkingdom bilateria are
triploblastic
flatworms have no need of a
respiratory system
many animal parasites that infect mammals exhibit complicated lifecycles. In the case of the trematode worms that cause schistosomiasis, the secondary host is a
snail
the first animal to have its genome completely sequenced was a member of the phylum
nematoda
the phylum name tardigrada literally means
slow walker
when you go to a seafood restaurant and order a seafood platter that includes shrimp, scallops, lobster, and squid you are eating representatives of ___ animal phyla
2
chitons have a radula for scraping food off of surfaces and therefore are unusual members of the phylum
mollusca
the remarkable similarities of the squid and mammalian eyes do not include
the mechanism of the development of the eye
onychophorans or velvet worms are
found only in Africa, Australia, and South America
although they have shells the barnacles are actually members of the phylum
arthropoda
the arthropod class trilobita are perhaps most famous for
having gone extinct approx 220 MYA
the chelicerata are named for their
mouthparts
which is not a feature of adult echinoderms
cephalization
the notochord that helps define the phylum chordata and gives them their name is
a dorsal rod-like structure supporting the length of the animal
adult sea squirts have two siphons, features that resemble those of sponges and cephalopods, but they are a subphylum of the chordata known as the
urochordata
lampreys and hagfish are grouped together in agnatha by virtue of having
no jaws
which vertebrate class is distinguished by the evolution of the amnion, a specialized membrane surrounding the developing egg that prevents dessication
reptiles
mammals are definde by
having hair, feeding milk to their young, several differently shaped kind of teeth
when biochemical polymers are broken down into their constituent monomers during digestiong, water molecules attack and break the covalent bonds holding the monomers together, hence these reactions are called ____ reactions
hydrolytic
in animals while carbohydrates are primarily for energy storage, they can also be structural in the form of
chitin
fatty acids consist of
a long hydrocarbon chain with an acid group at the end
the central carbon in an amino acid is covalently bonded to
a hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an R group
the 2ndary structures of proteins are maintained by
hydrogen bonds
3 parts of a nucleotide are
phosphates, pentose sugar, a ringed base
in an electron microscope the electrons are focused using lenses that consist of
magnets
Theodore Schwann is remembered for championing the theory that animals are made up of cells and today his name is used for a special type of cell which
coats the axons of nerve cells
E. coli bacteria are useful standard for size measurements of cells because they are approx __ microns long
1 micron long
most animal cells have
1 nucleus and many mitochondria
the bumps on the surface of the rough ER that make it look rough are
ribosomes
microfilaments involved in the cytoskeleton of animal cells are constructed primarily out of a single type of protein called
actin
phospholipids consist of
a phosphate group and two fatty acid chains
phospholipid bilayers are permeable to ___ but not to ____
small neutral molecules, but not ions
a single cell fresh water protist is transfered into salt water. what is most likely to happen?
the cell will shrink
molecules that are moved across membranes by transport proteins include
glucose
cystic fibrosis involves mutation of the gene encoding a channel/transporter that moves ___ ions across membranes
chlorine
after enguling a bacterium in a membrane bound vesicle, WBCs digest the bacterium by fusing the vesicle with
a lysosome
animals are
heterotrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular
Carl Linneaus
proposed the binomial naming system for a species in his book Systema Naturae
The increasing complexity of animal embryos during early development is reflected in these three names in this order:
morula, blastula, gastrula
the earliest animal fossils are from the ___ period approx___ MYA
ediacaran period approx 600-550
only two animal phyla exhibit no symmetry of any kind. they are:
placozoa and porifera
Sponges defend themselves by
having carbonate spicules and chemical defenses
phylum cnidaria inclues
hydras, jellyfish, corals
Huge circular coral reef atolls in the ocean result from
complete erosion of the original island around which the circling coral reef formed
the bilateria or triploblastic animals can confidently be divided up into the "superphyla"
protostomes and deuterostomes
flatworms are
turbellaria or planarians
elephantiasis is caused by ___ and transmitted by ____
nematodes, transmitted by mosquitoes
tardigrada literally means
slow walker
leeches are part of the phylum
annelida
trilobita went extinct
220MYA
hugh's fav insect of order Odonata
damselflies and dragonflies
deuterostomes comprise the __ and ___
echinoderms and chordates
cystic fibrosis involves mutation of the gene encoding a channel/transporter that moves ___ ions across membranes
chlorine
glycolysis occurs in the
cytoplasm