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presence of organisms in normally sterile blood.

blood cultures

ordered in sets of two, one bottle is blue, aerobic (with air) and one bottle is red, anaerobic (without air)

common pathogens

bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa

8-10 mls

recommended adult blood culture volumes

2.5-10 mls

recommended pediatric blood culture volumes

0.5-1 mls

recommended infants blood culture volumes

betadine and chloraprep

used for normal cleansing process for blood cultures for one full minute

24-72 hrs

cultures usually take how long to incubate and grow

clinical chemistry testing

measures levels of substances found normally in the human blood that have biological functions, measures non functional waste products, substances that indicate cell damage or disease, measures drugs or toxins

blood urea nitrogen



types of specimens used for chemical analysis


most common specimen, collected in a tube with no anticoagulant, so that it clots

common specimens

whole blood, serum, urine and plasma


serum or plasma appears milky, result of eating fatty foods

normal or reference value

range of normal values for a particular chemistry test from healthy individuals

chemistry panel grouping

some tests are bundled according to the system or organ targeted


commonly performed test, essential components of cells and body fluids. Some made by body, others acquired from diet. provides info about hydration, nutrition and liver function.


aka lytes, Na, K+, Cl and bicarbonate. important in transporting of substances into and out of cells


used in coagulation and muscle contraction


the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood, occurs in parathyroidism, bone cancer, hormone disorders


abnormally low level of calcium in the blood, can cause tetany, occurs in hypothyroidism, Vitamin D decrease kidney disease


surplus amino acid that is converted to urea and is excreted by the kidneys as a waste product, influenced by diet and hormones

uric acid

formed from broken down nucleic acids and excreted as a waste product of the kidneys

Liver function test, LFT

measurements of liver enzymes and other substances in the blood, a group of tests to show how well your liver is performing


waste product of hgb breakdown

liver enzymes

levels increase following damage to liver tissue

creatine kinase

CK, widely used in diagnosis and monitoring heart attacks


only present in heart muscle, making it a more accurate indicator of MI than CK


Bad cholesterol


good cholesterol

Lipid Metabolism test

measures level of cholesterol, 200mg/dl is normal adult average

thyroid function test

(TFT), blood test used to measure the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream to assist in determining thyroid function.

drug testing

always use a plain red, could get caught up in gel

lactic acid

when testing, never use a tourniquet, always put sample on ice.


normal sugar rating


basic metabolic panel

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