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131 terms

Anthropology Final

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Ethnography is
the firsthand, personal study of local setting
Anthropology's comparative perspective focuses on both cultural and biological elements. This
allows the inclusion of biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem
Although rap music started in the US, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this?
Diffusion
Ethnology is
the comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology
Indigenous people can do nothing to counter threats to their cultural identity, autonomy, and livelihood posed by globalization. T/F
False
According to anthropologists, cultures eventually become fixed and stop changing. T/F
False
President Obama's mother was a(n)
cultural and applied anthropologist
How are cultural rights different from human rights?
Cultural rights are vested in groups, not individuals
Which of the following statements about cultural relativism is not true?
Cultural relativism argues that come cultures are relatively better than others.
What is the term for cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous first hand contact?
Acculturation
Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of four field anthropology?
It has as exclusive focus on contemporary cultures
Biological anthropologists study all the following except
ancient languages
Which of the statements about anthropology is not true?
Anthropology's biological approach entails finding evolutionary explanations for all human behaviors
What distinction does Kottak draw between culture and society?
People share society-organized life in groups- with other animals but culture is distinctively human
The use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end is known as
applied anthropology
The study of past human behavior is called
archeology
Cultural relativism is a core value of American society. T/F
False
Which of the following is not one of the ways in which individuals learn culture?
Genetic transfusion
Which of the following statements about culture is not true?
Human groups differ in their capacities for culture
Anthropologists use the term society to refer to customs and traditions passed from generation through learning. T/F
False
The process by which children learn culture is known as
enculturation
Cultural relativists believe that a culture should be judged only according to the standards and traditions of that culture and not according to standards of other cultural traditions. T/F
True
Anthropology is a holistic discipline in that it
practice theory
An anthropologist is studying ethnic-religious conflict in contemporary Sri Lanka. She or he is most likely a(n)
...
Anthropologists study only non-western cultures. T/F
False
Enculturation refers to the process through which children learn culture. T/F
True
The Internet has hindered the process of globalization
False
Only people living in the industrialized, capitalist countries of western Europe and the US are ethnocentric
False
Linguistic anthropologists study how languages vary in time and space, and how language and culture influence each other T/F
True
The American Association's Code of Ethics is
designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that all them to conduct their research, and to society in general
In order to conduct research among a group of people, the anthropologist must
inform the people about the purpose, nature, and procedures of the research and its potential costs and benefits to them
The view that American Thanksgiving Day represents a postharvet festival like many other societies hold is
the etic view
When studying a culture today, anthropologists
must consider culture contact, external organizations, and power differentials and how they affect cultures
Taking part in events one is witnessing and describing is known as
participant observation
Which of the following is not a characteristic field technique used by ethnographers?
Telephone questionnaires
In survey research, what is sampling?
The collection of a representative sample of a larger population
The key cultural consultant provides the etic view of a culture T/F
False
In primate evolution, which of the following occurs?
None of the above
One of the primate characteristics we studied in class was related to locomotion. Which of the following is/are true?
The foramen magnum is located in a more centralized location if the primate is bipedal
As we discussed in class, the reduced number of primate offspring born at one time means
All except D
Dominance, as is found among all primates, serve as a meaning to
establish territorial boundaries
An objective statement uses quantitative data. T/F
True
A creation mythology may describe the way a people understand where they came from but anthropologists do not consider it to be a valid rendering of the people's past T/F
False
What term refers to the minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in a language?
Phonemes
Which statement about nonhuman primate calls is not true?
Calls demonstrate linguistic productivity
The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and expressions is called
Kinesics
What term refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences?
Syntax
Linguistic displacement is
the ability to talk about things that are not present
What do sociolinguistics study?
Speech in its social context
Which of the following statements best describes the use of language by apes?
Apes can learn American Sign Language and have shown the capacity for cultural transmission, productivity, and displacement, although there is still a gap between human and other ape language capabilities.
The study of sounds used in speech is known as
phonology
All human nonverbal communication is instinctive and thus not influenced by culture. T/F
False
Historical linguistics deals with
long term change
Which of the following is a characteristic shared by most present-day foragers?
They live in marginal environments
All humans were foragers until approx
10,000 years ago
What term refers to the type of pastoral economy in which the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year?
Nomadism
If rights to land are passed on through descent groups, what type of adaptive strategy is most likely?
Nonindustrial food producing
Which of the following is associated with horticultural systems of cultivation?
Slash and burn techniques
Most modern foragers live in remote areas, completely cut off from other modern, agricultural, and industrial societies T/F
False
How do chiefdoms differ from states?
Chiefdoms lack socioeconomic stratification and stratum endogamy
Dari believe that more than one father is in the best interest of the child. Their reasons include
Both A and B
Which of the following was not traditionally used by the Inuit to handle disputes?
Courts of law
In band societies, what typically determines the amount of respect or status that an individual enjoys?
Culturally valued personal attributes
What is a big man?
A person of influence and prestige
What term do social scientists use to refer to the socially approved use of power?
Authority
What is the basis of political organization in states?
Monopoly of force by a central authority
A caste system is characterized by all the following except
upward or downward change in a person's social system
Which of the following does not describe the situation of the Yanomami?
The Yanomami are isolated from missionaries and the Venezuelan government and are self-sufficient
In order for a class system to be open, it must facilitate
vertical mobility
According to Weber, what is the base of social status?
Prestige
What is the name of the postmaritial residence pattern in which a married couple is expected to live in the husband's community?
Patrilocality
Which of the following statements about the incest taboo is true?
The incest taboo does not eliminate incest
Kottak argues that relatively high incidence of expanded family households among poor North Americans is
an adaptation to poverty
In matrilineal societies
Descent groups include only the children of the group's women
Rules of endogamy
tend to maintain social distinctions between groups
The gift that a wife's group gives to her husband's family is known as a
dowry
What is polygyny?
A situation where a man has more than one wife at a time
Why is polygyny a problem in Turkey?
Second wives are not protected by law as their marriages are not legal
Which of the following statements about polyandry is true?
It is a cultural adaptation to mobility associated with travel for trade, commence, and warfare.
Although the nuclear family is found in many societies around the world, it is not cultural universal T/F
True
Which of the following is not culturally constructed?
Sex
Biological differences between male and females, other than contrasts in breasts and genitals, is known as
sexual dimorphism
In which of the following statements about sexual orientation is not true?
Sexual orientation is genetically predetermined, and culture plays no role in its expression
In which of the following societies would you expect women's status to be highest?
A horticulture society experiencing considerable population pressure
According to Kottak, which of the following contributed to the emergence of the American notion that "a women's place is in the home"?
European immigration around 1900
Cross cultural studies indicate that
in most societies women tend to be the primary child givers
More than half of American households with incomes below the poverty line
are headed by women
A political system ruled by men in which women have inferior status is known as a
patriarchy
The fact that chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates engage in masturbation and same sex activity suggests that
flexibility in sexual expression is part of humans primate heritage
What is the current trend in India?
Women are working and living independently longer before marriage
Polytheism refers to
belief in multiple gods
Rites of passage usually consist of what phases?
Separation, liminality, and incorporation
Induction into the US Marine Corp and the Native American vision quest are examples of
Rites of passage
Witchcraft accusations are often aimed at
socially marginal people
What is communitas?
A feeling of great social solidarity, equality and togetherness
Which of the following statements about religions is not true?
Religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social divisions
What kind of religion is most frequently found among foraging bands?
Shamanic
Religion is a cultural generality- that is, it is found in most, but not all, societies. T/F
False
Religion can be a powerful means of controlling society. T/F
True
Belief in mana or manalike forces is a primitive form of religion found only among tribal societies T/F
False
What fueled the European "Age of Discovery"?
European commercial interest in exotic raw material
Which of the following statements about world-system theory is not true?
It deals exclusively with the non-western, horticulture societies
What are the three positions that nations occupy in the world system?
Core, periphery, and semiperiphery
Which is not generally true of core nations?
They have less control over world finance than do semi periphery nations
Peripheral nations
have complex economies
According to Marx, who are the bourgeoisie and the proletoriat?
Distinct and opposed social classes in the capitalist economy
According to Marx, class consciousness results from
people's identification with groups based on common economic interests
Which of the following statements about the world system is not true?
It depends on each nation producing all that is needed by its own population
Which of the following is not true of 20th century industrialization?
It had tremendously beneficial effects on the economies, ecologies, and populations of "developing" nations
The political, social, economic, and cultural dominance of a territory and its people lay a foreign power for an extended period of time is known as
colonialism
The term indigenous peoples is used to refer to
the original inhabitants of particular territories
What term refers to the view that cultural diversity is something good and desirable?
Multiculturalism
What is the fastest growing ethnic group in the US?
Hispanics
What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members?
Discrimination
What term refers to devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, abilities, or attributes?
Prejudice
Which of the following is a major difference between Brazilian and American racial classifications?
In the US, social race is determined at birth and does not change, but in Brazil, racial identification can change from day to day
An examination of racial classifications around the world indicates that
the classification of racial types is an arbitrary, culturally specific process
"Race" is
culturally constructed
Which of the following about ethnicity is not true?
Unlike race, ethnicity derives from biological difference among human groups
Today scholars in many fields argue that "race" as it is understood in the US was a social mechanism to those populations brought together in colonial America, to include
All of the above
Historical research has shown that the idea of race has always carried more meanings than mere physical differences T/F
True
What term refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contact?
Acculturation
The deliberate physical extinction of a group is known as
genocide
Westernization has often been described as a form of what kind of cultural change?
Acculturation
Which of the following statements about television is true?
It can enhance national cultural identity by diffusing the cultures within their own borders
What term refers to the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of other cultures?
Cultural imperialism
Which of the following is one of the proofs given by scientists that the climate change is human driven?
The rise in CO2 in the atmosphere has correlated with the rise in surface temperatures
Which is the term that many scientists prefer instead of global warming to describe changes in the environment?
Climate change
What does Kottak say is the greatest obstacle to slowing climate change?
Meeting energy needs
What is the natural phenomenon that keeps the Earth's surface warm?
Greenhouse effect
Native Australians relate to the movie Rambo because
Native Australians see tribal ties and kin links between Rambo and the prisoners he was freeing