80 terms

A.P. European History: Unit V-The Establishment of West European Leadership

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Grand Monarque
the "sun king" Louis XIV
Sun King
France was seen as the land of light, from which all cultural achievement came from
Charles II of Spain
mentally and physically handicapped ruler of Spain of the Spanish Habsburg line, led to the war of Spanish Succession
Franche Comte
a province acquired by Louis XIV
universal monarchy
a monarchy in which one man rules over all of europe, all countries but one lose independence
Estates-General of the United Provinces
made up of one delegate from each province and could only act with province instructions
Arminians
toned down the doctrine of absolute predestination, drew support from Burghers and for a brief time were persecuted but eventually allowed toleration without some rights
Bank of Amsterdam
accepted deposits, assessed content and gave out universal florin, set rates of exchanges, safety of deposits and made loans possible
House of Orange
the house of William the Silent, many times all stadholders were elected from this house, leading to the accepted hereditary stadholderate
William III
Stadholder that tried to centralize government and free himself from constitutional checks for an absolute monarchy, worked against France and became king of England through his wife
English Navigation Act of 1651
didn't allow Dutch to ship goods to England: all goods must come in on English ships or the country they are coming from
English-Dutch Wars
Wars resulting because the English tried to suppress Dutch commerce through the Navigation Act an control over the seas
Treaty of NImwegan
Louis XIV took Franche-Comte and towns from Flanders in return for the stopping of the war against the Dutch
Hereditary Stadholderate
stated that the Stadholder would not be hereditary from the House of Orange
Hugo Grotius
Law of Peace and War: a treatise on international law
Baruch Spinoza
made living "grinding lenses" that led to microscopes and telescopes
Christian Huyghens
Dutch scientist who works with physics and math, telescope, clocks with pendulums, rings of Saturn and theory of light
Anna Marie van Schurman
argued for the education of women through her book: a learned maid and whether she may be called a scholar
Jan Vermeer
portrayed domestic scenes, "quiet" dignity of men and women burghers
Puritan
a more extreme calvinist in England
Presbyterian
Religion of Scotland
Anglican
moderate protestant, derived from the Catholic Church, established Church of England by Elizabeth I
James VI of Scotland
became king of Scotland and England with the death of Elizabeth I, conflict with Parliament because he wanted absolute control
The True Law of a Free Monarchy
written by James, wanted a monarchy free from control of parliament, church and laws/customs of the past
Tonnage and Poundage
rights given to the king by Parliament to collect taxes on exports and imports by the quantity of the goods
Archbishop Laud
With Charles, he sought to conform religious conformity under the Anglican Church
Prerogative Courts
Star Chamber (settle disputes without a jury) and High Commission (ensure conformity to the church of England); weren't like because people didn't want king to make all decisions
Ship money case
case on Charles he wanted to tax all people for navy, but parliament didn't want it, started dispute between ruler and the parliament
Long Parliament
for almost 20 years with no new election until the were absolved by the Commonwealth, didn't asset the king
Solemn League and Convent
prescribed that religion in all three kingdoms should be uniform
Roundheads
parliamentary forces who were Puritan and defeated the king and put Cromwell in power
Pride's Purge
Cromwell drove out 100 of the Parliament and left the rump because of their hesitation to support him
the Rump
Cromwell drove out the rest of Parliament, and these were the remaining 50 or 60
Levelers
natural rights and rights of englishmen, equal representation, constitution and voting for parliament
Diggers
occupied and cultivated common lands (privately owned)
Quakers
all believers have own truth, reject social and religious hierarchy, encourage women to preach
Fifth Monarchy Men
thought that the world was going to end, Christ's empire coming in which all justice would rule
Instrument of Government
Section 19
Charles II
son of Charles I, king of restored English monarchy, careful not to provoke, classes were ok with him an the church
Dissenters
formerly called puritans and refused to accept the resorted church of England
Treaty of Dover
secret treaty with France, agreed to join Louis XIV against the Dutch in return for 3 million Livers a year
Declaration of Indulgence
kings brother James publicly returned to catholicism and announced no enforcement of law against Dissenters, people rightly felt the promotion of Catholicism
Test Act
1673, all officers had to be the church of England and Catholics cannot serve in government, army or navy
Whigs and Tories
two parities in England: whigs were suspicious of the King and Tories suspicious of monetary interest and supported the king
Glorious Revolution
the events of 1688, vindicating the principles of parliament, rule of law and right to rebellion
William and Mary
parliament abandoned James II and offered throne to Mary, but she was wife to William, used England to fight against Spain
Battle of Boyne
army of Dutch, Germans Scots and Huguenots defeated Irish and French army lead by James II, saved constitutional liberties and protestants kept religion
Bill of Rights
bi jaw can be suspended by the king, no taxes can be raised or army without parliamentary support, no one can be arrested with out evidence
United Kingdom of Great Britain
Scots obtained rights of English mercantilism by consenting to the Union in 1707, retained own legal system and church but merged in government and parliament
Act of Settlement 1701
no Catholic could be king of England and descendants of James II (the pretenders)
Toleration Act
allowed protestant dissenters to practice religion but can't be a part of political and public sphere
penal code for Ireland
Irish, catholic clergy banished, Catholics were forbidden to vote or sit in Irish Parliament, couldn't teach or send children over seas, couldn't get a degree at Trinity College, couldn't purchase land, lots of restrictions
Classicism
order, clarity, greco-roman beliefs, ideology and influence
parlements
court of law in a region upheld fundamental laws that the king can not overstep, unconstitutional, local liberties/customs and internal tariffs
Fronde
a rebellion led by the nobility and parliaments insisting the right to pronounce certain edicts unconstitutional, if they would have gotten their way the manorial system would have arisen
Cardinal Mazarin
acting for Louis XIV during the Fronde, leader of France
Bishop Bossuet
advanced the teaching the divine power, kings are god's representatives in the world
Divine Rights of Kings
kings get power form god and should be free from dictation of outside parliaments, estates, etc.
Versailles
created by Louis XIV where the nobility lived so Louis XIV could keep them in check, gave them frivolous jobs
Intendents
generally bourgeoisie and was in charge of a certain district and embodied all aspects of the government: recruiting soldiers, keeping an eye on the nobility
Councils of State
A system of administration developed by Louis XIV to hold more control of his state
Tax Farmers
the ones who taxes passed through and made the tax system ineffective, gained a substantial profit
Colbert
applied Mercantilism, expand export of french goods, increase government wealth, reduce internal tariffs
Five Great Farms
Tariff union in France, place of free trade within the country, but not strong enough to go away with all internal tariffs
Commercial Code
replaced customary law-improved roads and communication, required handicraft makers to create a certain quality and quantity of a good, expand industries, export on some goods held down to keep prices down
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
took away the rights of Protestants, causing many to leave the country and had a huge economic blow, official intolerance
Nicholas Poussin
carried over art from the Renaissance, notable French painter
Dutch War
Louis XIV's invasion of Dutch provinces along the Rhine to expand territory
Treaty of Nimwegan
French gave up ambitions in Holland in return for Franche-Comte
War of the League of Augsburg
Catholic allies of Leopold and protestant allies with William to suppress the French, French couldn't overpower the fleets of the Dutch and English
Peace of Ryswick
left matters of the war where it had begun, no territorial changes
The Pyrenees exist no longer
Spanish and France where now combined, not really a boundary between the two
William III
Stadholder of Dutch provinces that orchestrated the fight against France, also English king
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough
a preeminent military commander for the allied forces against France
Philip V of Spain
brandon of Louis XIV who became king of Spain
Grand Alliance of 1701
enacted by William III that included England and Holland
Prince Eugene of Savoy
led the Austrians
Treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt
treaty that partitioned Spain and lead to France stopping their territorial expansion
Asiento
granted privilege of providing Spanish America with slaves, permitted on shipload of English goods to be brought to Porto Belle in Panama
Dutch Barrier
a string of forts along the French side of Belgium to grant protection