Parts of a Plant Cell and Functions
Nucleus: Contains the DNA (in chromosomes) that makes the cell unique. It also controls the functions of the organelles.
Nucleolus: The prominent structure in the nucleus, the nucleolus produces ribosomes, which are necessary of protein synthesis.
Mitochondria: Provides cell with energy by cellular respiration (combining glucose (food) with oxygen to create fuel and energy). They also burn carbohydrates and glucose to make energy
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER): An endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membrane-bound tubes and vesicles. RERs appear rough because of the numerous ribosomes on them. RERs store and transport proteins from the ribosomes.
SER: An endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membrane-bound tubes and vesicles. SERs appear smooth and make lipids (fats).
Ribosomes: Packets of RNA and protein that synthesizes protein (lengthening the protein chain).
Cytoskeleton: Mantains the cell's shape and helps it move.
Cytosol/Cytoplasm: A gel/liquid substance that fills the inside of the cell. It is mostly water with some proteins, and is where all the organelles reside. Cytoplasm is the cytosol and all the organelles.
Golgi apparatus: A stack of membrane-bound vesicles important for packaging micro-molecules to transport elsewhere in the cell.
Lysosomes: Contain an enzyme (hydrolytic enzyme) necessary for intracellular digestion.
Secretory vesicle: Where cell secretions are stored and transported.
Vacuole: A membrane-bound sac that stores water food and waste. It also helps in intracellular digestion and the release of waster products. It keeps the cell from wilting, and is very large.
Cell membrane: Controls the flow of water and other substances in and out of the cell. It is made of two layers of phospholipids with protein embedded.
Nuclear membrane: A two-layer membrane that surrounds the nucleus and controls what goes into it and comes out.
Peroxisomes: Protect the cell from hydrogen peroxide, which they produce. It is toxic to the cell. Peroxisomes also break down poisons.
Chromosomes (chromatin): Contains DNA and protein (genes) and provides instructions for the cell.
Chloroplasts: Contains chlorophyll, which is responsible for the cell's green color. Also, photosynthesis occurs here, producing food (glucose).
Cell wall: Maintains the shape of the cells and is a protective barrier. It is made of cellulose.