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the rock is crystalline; minerals grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope

what best describes an aphanitic texture?

water expands as it freezes caussing the crack walls to be pushed apart

assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?

it involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material

which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true


visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a

temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures

why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere

highly viscous; cool quickly

which magma is most likely to quench to a natural glass?

erosion is the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere

which one of the following statements best describes erosion


the size, shape, and arrangments of mineral grains in an igneous rock are known as ____


____ a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most resistant to chemical weathering

the extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow

lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rock. Why?


____ is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock

warm temperatures, very moist

what two factors speed up rates of cheimcal reaction and weathering in rocks and soils

5% and 75%

sedimentary rocks account for about what percent of the earths outermost 10 km and area is covered by sedimentary rocks


____ is thought to be common in the earths mantle but rare in the crust?


The ____ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zone

chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar

clay minerals, silica and dissolved potassium bicarbonate in the soil water are products of which process?


which of the following minerals crystallize early in bowens reaction series


___ sadstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of graniric bedrock

frost wedging

which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock


a(n) ____ texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock forming from a lava flow

crystal size

All of the following are factors that affect the generation of magma except for _____


which ingoeus rock or magma has the highest silica content?

the colcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in yellowstone national park

which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots


which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams


clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock illustrate which kind of weathering

grain size of the detrital particles

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified based on the ____


Which one of the following is not a chemical sedimentary rock or evaporite

high viscosity and dissolved gas

____ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano

the are situated in the interior of a larrge, pacific plate above a hotspot deep in the mantle

which of the following statements best desvribes the big Hawaiin volcanoes


changing the composition of magma by incorporating surrounding host rock is known as


___ is the dominant feldspar in basalt


nonclastic textures are common in which of the following sedimentary rocks

when magma reaches the surface its dissoved has content increase

which one of the following statements is not true


a _____ texture represnts a single long period of cooling and crystallization

rhyolite, andesite, bassalt

which one of the following shoes the correct order of decreasing magma viscosity

bedding or stratification

which is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks?

orthoclase feldspar

____ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones

in moist, temperate climates

in which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective


the last minerals to crystallize on Bowens reaction series results in ingoeus rocks with a ___ composition

evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite

evaporate minerals are more soluble than calcite and quartz

which of the following describes the correct order for relative solubility of minerals in sedimentary rocks


A _____ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows


______ is the major dissoved volatile constituent in magmas


Pockets of magmas can be formed by the melting of deep continental crust heated by the intrusion of other magmas. WHich of the following correctly describes this process

Rhyolite, andesite, basalt

which one of the following shows the correct order (left to right) of decreasing magma viscosity?

ewhat do pumice and obsidian have in common

_____ are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism

the rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope

which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture?

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