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final from quiz 2
the rock is crystalline; minerals grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope
what best describes an aphanitic texture?
water expands as it freezes caussing the crack walls to be pushed apart
assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?
it involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material
which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true
visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a
temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures
why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere
highly viscous; cool quickly
which magma is most likely to quench to a natural glass?
erosion is the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere
which one of the following statements best describes erosion
the size, shape, and arrangments of mineral grains in an igneous rock are known as ____
____ a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most resistant to chemical weathering
the extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow
lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rock. Why?
____ is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock
warm temperatures, very moist
what two factors speed up rates of cheimcal reaction and weathering in rocks and soils
5% and 75%
sedimentary rocks account for about what percent of the earths outermost 10 km and area is covered by sedimentary rocks
____ is thought to be common in the earths mantle but rare in the crust?
The ____ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zone
chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar
clay minerals, silica and dissolved potassium bicarbonate in the soil water are products of which process?
which of the following minerals crystallize early in bowens reaction series
___ sadstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of graniric bedrock
which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock
a(n) ____ texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock forming from a lava flow
All of the following are factors that affect the generation of magma except for _____
which ingoeus rock or magma has the highest silica content?
the colcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in yellowstone national park
which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots
which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams
clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock illustrate which kind of weathering
grain size of the detrital particles
Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified based on the ____
Which one of the following is not a chemical sedimentary rock or evaporite
high viscosity and dissolved gas
____ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano
the are situated in the interior of a larrge, pacific plate above a hotspot deep in the mantle
which of the following statements best desvribes the big Hawaiin volcanoes
changing the composition of magma by incorporating surrounding host rock is known as
___ is the dominant feldspar in basalt
nonclastic textures are common in which of the following sedimentary rocks
when magma reaches the surface its dissoved has content increase
which one of the following statements is not true
a _____ texture represnts a single long period of cooling and crystallization
rhyolite, andesite, bassalt
which one of the following shoes the correct order of decreasing magma viscosity
bedding or stratification
which is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks?
____ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones
in moist, temperate climates
in which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective
the last minerals to crystallize on Bowens reaction series results in ingoeus rocks with a ___ composition
evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks
which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite
evaporate minerals are more soluble than calcite and quartz
which of the following describes the correct order for relative solubility of minerals in sedimentary rocks
A _____ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows
______ is the major dissoved volatile constituent in magmas
Pockets of magmas can be formed by the melting of deep continental crust heated by the intrusion of other magmas. WHich of the following correctly describes this process
Rhyolite, andesite, basalt
which one of the following shows the correct order (left to right) of decreasing magma viscosity?
ewhat do pumice and obsidian have in common
_____ are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism
the rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope
which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture?
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