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76 terms

Anatomy Ch. 9 & 10

Muscles
STUDY
PLAY
Extension
angle of joint increases
Flexion
angle of joint decreases (bending knees)
Hyperextension
over extending the part past atomic position
Dorsiflexion
sole of foot goes upward
Plantar flexion
sole of foot goes downward
Abduction
movement of limb away from the body midline (raising arms)
Adduction
movement of limb toward body midline (lowering arms)
Rotation
turning of a bone around its own axis
Circumduction
moving a limb so that it moves in a circle (cone-like) pointy end of cone is the joint and is stationary
Pronation
palms face downward
Supination
palms face upward
Eversion
turning soles of feet outward
Inversion
turing soles of feet inward
Retraction
mandible moves inward
Protraction
mandible moves outward
Elevation
lifting body part
Depression
lowering body part
Opposition
touching thumb to each finger (most animals cannot do this)
Epimysium
dense regular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle
Perimysium
fibrous connective tissue surrounding fasicles
Fascicles
groups of muscle fibers
Endomysium
loose connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber (cell)
Muscle fiber
cylindrical cell
Sarcolemma
cell membrane of muscle cell
Sarcoplasm
cytoplasm, contain glycosomes (glycogen storage) and myogloblin (oxygen storage)
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
terminal cisternae store calcium on ends in sacs
Transverse Tubules
continued sarcolemma that penetrates into the cell
Triads
2 terminal cisternae of SR and 1 t tubule
Myofibrils
densely packed rod-like elements made of myofilaments (actin and myosin)
I Band
lightest in color, only in thin filaments between 2 sarcomeres, Z line is in it
A Band
length of the thick filaments
H Zone
lighter mid-region where filaments don't overlap (only thick filaments)
M Line
midline that holds adjacent thick filaments together
Sarcomere
part of muscle that contracts
Z lines/discs
protein that marks boundaries of sarcomeres and ends thin filaments, connects myofibrils to one another
actin
thin filament, twisted double strand protein, globular actin subunits on the strands where myosin heads attach during contraction
myosin
thick filament, 2 tails, heads: attach to actin during contraction
Hamstring: Biceps femoris
extends the leg at the knee
Gluteas medius
abducts thigh and rotates it medially
Gracilis
adducts thigh
Fibularus (peroneus) longus
plantar flexion and eversion of foot
Psoas major and iliacus
flexes the leg at the knee
Quadriceps femoris group
extends knee and flexes thigh at the hip
Sartorius
abducts thigh and rotates it laterally
Tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
Brachialis
flexes the forearm at the elbow
Coracobrachialis
flexes and adducts arm at the shoulder along with pectoralis major
Deltoid
abducts arm
Extensor carpi ulnaris
extends and abducts hand at the wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris
flexes and adducts hand at the wrist
Flexor digitorum profundus
flexes distal joints of fingers 2-5
Infraspinatus
rotates arm laterally
Pectoralis major
pulls arm forward and across chest
Pectoralis minor
raises ribs in forceful inhalation or pulls scapula forward and downward
Rhomboideus major
raises and adducts scapula
Serratus anterior
used to thrust shoulder anteriorly, as when pushing something
Supinator
rotates forearm laterally
Pronator teres
rotates arm medially
Teres major
extends, adducts, and rotates arm medially
Triceps brachii
extends the forearm at the elbow
Gastrocnemius and soleus
plantar flexes foot
Flexor digitorum longus
plantar flexes, inverts foot, and flexes toes
Extensor digitorum longus
mover of toe extension
Subscapularis
chief medial rotator of humerus
Frontalis
raises eyebrows
Occipitals
pulls scalp back
Orbicularis oculi
closes eye
Orbicularis oris
closes lips
Buccinator
compresses cheek
Zygomaticus
raises corners of mouth upward (smile)
Platysma
tenses neck
Masseter
prime move of jaw
Temporalis
closes jaw and maintains resting position
Sternocleidomastoid
flexes and laterally rotates head
Scalenes
elevates top 2 ribs
Splenius
extends/hyperextends head