20 terms

Chapter 12: Manipulating DNA: Tools and techniques

STUDY
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CVS
prenatal process of obtaining a sample of chorion tissue that surrounds a developing embryo or early fetus and includes cells of embryonic or fetal origin
cDNA
DNA made from a messenger RNA template using the reverse transcriptase enzyme; cDNA has no introns
electrophoresis
technique for sorting through an electric field a mixture of DNA fragments (and other molecules with net charge) on the basis of different fragment lengths
gene cloning
process of making multiple identical copies of a specific gene or segment of DNA
genetically modified foods
foods derived from a plant or an animal into which a gene not normally present has been incorporated
hypervariable
describes a DNA segment that shows a high degree of variability between embers of a population, and that is expressed as a large number of alleles, as different base sequences, or as different numbers of tandem repeats
in situ hybridisation
pairing between a single-stranded, labelled probe ad a specific complementary, single-stranded DNA segment that is not isolated but is in place within a chromosome
matrilineal
pattern of inheritance in which a trait passes only from a mother to all her children
mtDNA
circular DNA molecule present in many copies in each mitochondrion
PCR
technique for amplifying tiny amounts of DNA exponentially through many cycles of multiplication; sometimes termed 'DNA xeroxing'
prenatal
before birth
primer
short, single-stranded DNA (or RNA) sequences complementary to part of a specific DNA fragment
probe
single-stranded segment of DNA (or RNA) with a base sequence complementary to that in a target strand of DNA and that carries a radioactive or fluroescent label to detect it
recognition sequence
sequence of three to six nucleotides within a DNA molecule that forms the specific site for a restriction enzyme that can cut the DNA at that point; also termed a cutting site
restriction enzymes
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
reverse transcriptase
enzyme that directs the formation of copy DNA from a messenger RNA template
vector
in genetics, refers to an agent such as a plasmid or a virus that carries passenger DNA into a cell; in disease; an insect or other animal that carries a pathogenic organism from one host to another; also refers to an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another
TGOs
organisms that carry in their genomes one or more genes artificially introduced from another species
RFLP
variation that may be detected in members of a family depending on the presence or absence of a restriction enzyme cutting site within the DNA of a given gene
STRs
chromosomal sites where many copies of a short DNA sequence are joined end to end; also termed microsatellites. sequences are normally 2 to 4 base pairs, and the number of repeats are very variable between unrelated people.