21 terms

Chapter 11: Gene Function: Genes in Action

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Beta Thalassaemia
Inherited recessive disorder in which an affected person shows characteristic changes in their blood
Haemoglobins
Types of protein, consisting of four polypeptide chains, found in red blood cells and responsible for the transport of oxygen; in normal red blood cells, haemoglobin A predominates
Ribonucleic Acid
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Anaemia
A condition in which the concentration of red blood cells is much lower than normal.
Transcription
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Gene Action
Processes of transcription and translation of a gene to produce a gene product, typically a polypeptide chain
Post-Transcription Modification
The process occurring after transcription in which pre-mRNA is altered to become mRNA; introns are discarded from the pre-mRNA to leave only the coding regions (exons).
Anti-codon
a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA
Codons
Sequences of three bases in a mRNA molecule that contain information either to bring amino acids into place in a polypeptide chain or to start or stop the process.
Alternative Splicing
Production of different mRNA molecules from one kind of pre-mRNA through joining various combinations of exons from the pre-mRNA.
Nucleolar Organiser Regions (NORs)
Regions of chromosomes where ribosomal RNA is transcribed
Structural Genes
Genes that produce proteins that contribute to the structure or functioning of an organism.
Regulator Genes
Class of gene that controls the activity of other genes.
Signalling Molecules
Carry signals or messages from one cell to another, can be hormonal, neurohormonal, acetylcholine, etc.
Homeotic Genes
Master genes that are active during embryonic development and control other structural genes ensuring that various body parts are built in the correct locations.
DNA Replication
The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself.
Microarrays
Surfaces, often glass, on which thousands of spots of single-stranded DNA are positioned in a precise arrangement and where each spot corresponds to a part of one particular gene
Uracil
A nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine.
DNA-binding Proteins
Proteins that bind to regions of nuclear DNA near genes and directly switch genes on or off.
Exon
Part of coding region of a gene that is both transcribed and translated.