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An Experiment

Two groups of children, one group watches a violent film and the other watches a non violent film, then you watch their actions before and after looking for changes in behavior. This is called?

IV: Whether the children saw the violence or not.
DV: Violent actions after watching violent TV.

The children who watched violent movies acted more aggressively. The independent variables are?
The dependent variable is?

They are not generalizable

The major problem with case studies is


Human development is based on empirical research

Micro system

Ecological systems approach the immediate family, peer groups, etc. These are called the


Piaget is best known for his contributions to ____ theories

A past history of reinforcement and punishment

According to learning theories, human development is influenced by

A child has once been rewarded for this behavior

A child frequently hits other children, according to learning theory

Ova carry x chromosomes, where as sperm carry either x or y

Differences between the sperm cell and the ova are

Low birth weight of twins/triplets

An undesired outcome of almost 50% of of Invitro-fertilization


Dominant-recessive pattern is

Shyness is polygenic

Shyness being more highly correlated with monozygotic twins then dizygotic suggests


Recessive x linked genes are more likely to show in a mans

Different effects of teratogens

Dizygotic twins exposed to same teratogens during pregnancy experience

Each drug might intensify the effects of the other (Interaction effect)

Suzanne is pregnant, a doctor tells her 1 glass of wine and 1 cigarette that

interaction effect

The result of a combination of teratogens. Sometimes risk is greatly magnified when an embryo or fetus is exposed to more than one teratogen at the same time.


physical characteristics of an organism


genetic makeup of an organism


Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes

Identical Twins

Monozygotic twins

Fraternal Twins

Dizygotic Twins

learning theory

Based on the idea that changes in behavior result more from experience and less from our personality or how we think or feel about a situation.

Just Right phenomenon

Kindra likes her napkin in a certain place, etc. This is exhibiting

Growth of the Corpus Collosum

Kayla is 4 and has recently begun coordination the 2 sides of her body. This development attributes to

Pre-frontal cortex

Part of the brain that specialized in planning is


Research has shown that the most effective way to bring up a parentless child is

Passing and enforcing safety laws

Most effective way to reduce childhood deaths


Preschool years brain grows usually more rapid (true/false)


Maltreated children are more aggressive (true/false)

Think logically

Piaget believes that children ages 2-6 can

False, two years

children cannot apply gender labels with any consistency until 5 years old (true/false)

A timeout should only last

as many minutes as the age

pre-frontal cortex

front part of the brain responsible for thinking, planning, and language

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them


specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for certain functions


area of the brain that releases hormones


area of the brain responsible for long term memories


Area of the brain that controls fear and anger (night terrors, strong fears)


Range of children from 7-11, you'll see that children grow

the highest age

Age of children that has the quickest reaction time

concrete and specific examples

According to Piaget, a child between 7-11 can apply logical principles to

cognitive and informational processing skills

Josiah's understanding and use of language has advanced considerably in middle childhood, this is because improvement of


To measure a person's stage of moral development, Kholberg examined how a person _____ about moral questions

functions of a family

Developing self respect, nurturing friendships, and encouraging learning are 3 of the

who belongs and how they are related

Family structure refers to

how many other stressors are present

In childhood, how children react to a serious stress depends primarily on

easy temperament

Who is most likely to overcome serious problems in the family?


the only country to have nation wide effort to reduce bullying is


Experts tend to remember more information than the novices (true/false)

openness and confidence

the major theories agree that during middle childhood children experience


one leisure activity that is directly correlated with obesity in children is

chunking, 7-9

Recalling a word (car) instead of 3 letters (c-a-r) is called___, and adults can recall____


the difference is not caused by physical disability or environment

hidden curriculum

aspects of a school such as discipline policies are called the


Piaget calls Max sorting coins making separate piles of nickels and dimes


A child's ability to engage in self ______ improves their self-esteem decreases

display rules

Parents are more likely to imitate an infants smile than an infants cry. this is part of how parents begin to teach children emotional____

critical period

period during which a specific experience must occur to avoid permanent deficits

transient exuberance

The great increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain during the first two years of life.

synaptic proliferation

increase of synapse in the brain before puberty

synaptic pruning

a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost


growth stops and body tissue wastes away resulting in death during infancy


swelling and bloating in children >1


Gibson's theory - an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment

dynamic perception

interpretation of information gained through motion (experience)

intermodal perception

the ability to combine information from two sensory models


point to or hold up and object


cause something to do something by gesturing and vocalizing

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