C.D. Final

An Experiment
Two groups of children, one group watches a violent film and the other watches a non violent film, then you watch their actions before and after looking for changes in behavior. This is called?
IV: Whether the children saw the violence or not.
DV: Violent actions after watching violent TV.
The children who watched violent movies acted more aggressively. The independent variables are?
The dependent variable is?
They are not generalizable
The major problem with case studies is
Human development is based on empirical research
Micro system
Ecological systems approach the immediate family, peer groups, etc. These are called the
Piaget is best known for his contributions to ____ theories
A past history of reinforcement and punishment
According to learning theories, human development is influenced by
A child has once been rewarded for this behavior
A child frequently hits other children, according to learning theory
Ova carry x chromosomes, where as sperm carry either x or y
Differences between the sperm cell and the ova are
Low birth weight of twins/triplets
An undesired outcome of almost 50% of of Invitro-fertilization
Dominant-recessive pattern is
Shyness is polygenic
Shyness being more highly correlated with monozygotic twins then dizygotic suggests
Recessive x linked genes are more likely to show in a mans
Different effects of teratogens
Dizygotic twins exposed to same teratogens during pregnancy experience
Each drug might intensify the effects of the other (Interaction effect)
Suzanne is pregnant, a doctor tells her 1 glass of wine and 1 cigarette that
interaction effect
The result of a combination of teratogens. Sometimes risk is greatly magnified when an embryo or fetus is exposed to more than one teratogen at the same time.
physical characteristics of an organism
genetic makeup of an organism
Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes
Identical Twins
Monozygotic twins
Fraternal Twins
Dizygotic Twins
learning theory
Based on the idea that changes in behavior result more from experience and less from our personality or how we think or feel about a situation.
Just Right phenomenon
Kindra likes her napkin in a certain place, etc. This is exhibiting
Growth of the Corpus Collosum
Kayla is 4 and has recently begun coordination the 2 sides of her body. This development attributes to
Pre-frontal cortex
Part of the brain that specialized in planning is
Research has shown that the most effective way to bring up a parentless child is
Passing and enforcing safety laws
Most effective way to reduce childhood deaths
Preschool years brain grows usually more rapid (true/false)
Maltreated children are more aggressive (true/false)
Think logically
Piaget believes that children ages 2-6 can
False, two years
children cannot apply gender labels with any consistency until 5 years old (true/false)
A timeout should only last
as many minutes as the age
pre-frontal cortex
front part of the brain responsible for thinking, planning, and language
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for certain functions
area of the brain that releases hormones
area of the brain responsible for long term memories
Area of the brain that controls fear and anger (night terrors, strong fears)
Range of children from 7-11, you'll see that children grow
the highest age
Age of children that has the quickest reaction time
concrete and specific examples
According to Piaget, a child between 7-11 can apply logical principles to
cognitive and informational processing skills
Josiah's understanding and use of language has advanced considerably in middle childhood, this is because improvement of
To measure a person's stage of moral development, Kholberg examined how a person _____ about moral questions
functions of a family
Developing self respect, nurturing friendships, and encouraging learning are 3 of the
who belongs and how they are related
Family structure refers to
how many other stressors are present
In childhood, how children react to a serious stress depends primarily on
easy temperament
Who is most likely to overcome serious problems in the family?
the only country to have nation wide effort to reduce bullying is
Experts tend to remember more information than the novices (true/false)
openness and confidence
the major theories agree that during middle childhood children experience
one leisure activity that is directly correlated with obesity in children is
chunking, 7-9
Recalling a word (car) instead of 3 letters (c-a-r) is called___, and adults can recall____
the difference is not caused by physical disability or environment
hidden curriculum
aspects of a school such as discipline policies are called the
Piaget calls Max sorting coins making separate piles of nickels and dimes
A child's ability to engage in self ______ improves their self-esteem decreases
display rules
Parents are more likely to imitate an infants smile than an infants cry. this is part of how parents begin to teach children emotional____
critical period
period during which a specific experience must occur to avoid permanent deficits
transient exuberance
The great increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain during the first two years of life.
synaptic proliferation
increase of synapse in the brain before puberty
synaptic pruning
a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost
growth stops and body tissue wastes away resulting in death during infancy
swelling and bloating in children >1
Gibson's theory - an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment
dynamic perception
interpretation of information gained through motion (experience)
intermodal perception
the ability to combine information from two sensory models
point to or hold up and object
cause something to do something by gesturing and vocalizing