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voting-age population

citizens who are eligible to vote after reaching the minimum age requirement

registered voters

people who are registered to vote

literacy test

a requirement that citizens show that they can read before registering to vote

poll tax

a requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote

grandfather clause

a clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867

white primary

the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation

Australian ballot

a government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted around 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public


people who tend to participate in all forms of politics


Those who both vote in elections and get involved in campaigns because they like the conflict. Tend to have more money and a higher education as well as very clear political ideologies



complete activists

An individual who actively promotes a political party, philosophy, or issue she or he cares personally about.


Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity

fifteenth amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude


portion of the population that rarely votes, does not get involved in organizations, and probably does not even talk about politics very much

motor-votor law

a law that enables prospective voters to register when they obtain or renew a driver's license

nineteenth amendment

the constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote

parochial participants

those who avoid elections and civic organizations but will contact officials regarding specific problems


Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system

twenty-fourth amendment

It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters

twenty-sixth amendment

lowered the voting age to 18

voter apathy

indifference and inaction on the part of individuals or groups with respect to the political process

voting-eligible population

All U.S. citizens age 18 and over, who are not excluded from voter eligibility due to criminal status (felony convictions, incarceration, or parole), or excluded due to being declared being incompetent to vote

Voting Rights Act, 1970

gave 18 year olds the right to vote in federal elections, contained provisions lowering the voting age to eighteen in state elections

voting specialists

Those that do little more than vote, politically speaking. Tend to not be well-educated and are substantially older than the average American.

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