40 terms

Chapter 4: Ancient Egypt and the Near East

What civilizations developed in this region and what were their first legacies?
STUDY
PLAY
Topography
Physical features of a place
Delta
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
Papyrus
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.
Cataract
A large waterfall
Pharaoh
A ruler of ancient Egypt.
Bureaucracy
A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Hieroglyphics
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Pyramids
Egyptians built these structures to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs. These structures also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife.
Mummification
The embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy.
Commerce
The buying and selling of goods
Monotheism
Belief in one god
Prophet
A religious teacher who is regarded as someone who speaks for God or for a god
The Red Land
The geography of ancient Egypt included vast desert areas of burning sands.
Ramses II
This ancient Egyptian leader fought against the Hittites in the area that was then called Kadesh. Loved war and oversaw the building of impressive structures.
Lower Egypt
The Nile delta formed this region in Nothern Egypt.
Served as a guide to the afterlife for dead souls.
The Book of the Dead was a well-known piece of Egyptian literature.
Skilled artists created paintings on the interior wall of the pyramids and burial chambers depicting daily Egyptian life primarily to
Remind those dead of what life was like in the previous world
Solar calendar
Egyptians developed a calendar with 365 days based on the sun.
Nubians were more motivated to trade because
Because Nubians had less land to farm than Egyptians,
In order to overcome death like Osiris, Egyptians believed that they needed to
Preserve their bodies for the afterlife.
The most important god of all those worshiped by the Egyptians was the sun god
Amon-Re
In ancient Egypt, those responsible for using hieroglyphics to record important information and maintain records were called
scribes
In order to construct the pyramids, the Egyptians needed to be proficient in the fields of engineering and
mathematics
How were the Egyptians able to predict when the Nile would flood each year?
They watched the horizon for the star Sirius to appear in the sky.
What effect did continued trading with Egypt have on Nubian civilization?
Nubians adopted many of the elements of Egyptian culture
During the rule of Hatshepsut, Egypt grew in wealth and power mainly because
Hatshepsut sent traders to East Africa who returned with ivory, gold, and wood.
The Ancient Egyptian ruler best known for battles against the Hittites, and for building more monuments during his reign than any other pharaoh was
Ramses II.
Even though she was a woman, Hatshepsut succeeded as a pharaoh because
she did everything expected of a king.
What is the source of much of our knowledge about ancient Egyptian civilization?
Papyrus documents containing records about medicine, religion, stories, and calendars
According to legend, the first pharaoh and leader who united the Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt was
Menes
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Judaism
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and it's adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live. Followers are called Jews.
Christianity
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Bible
The holy book of Christians.
Koran (Quran)
Holy book of Islam
Torah
The first five books of Jewish Scripture, which they believe are by Moses
Synogogue
A Jewish house of worship
Mosque
Muslim house of worship
Church
Christian place of worship
Afterlife
Life after death