40 terms

Biology Flashcards

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Protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Amino Acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
Monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
Polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Nucleotide
building block (monomer) of nucleic acid polymers
Nucleic Acid
a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides
Ribosome
makes proteins
Chloroplast
site of photosynthesis
Nucleus
control center of the cell
Golgi Body Apparatus
Packages Proteins, receives Proteins, and sends them out
Cell Membrane
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Dominant
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
Recessive
trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene
Allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
Codominance
When neither of the traits can show as one. (Red flower with a white center)
Incomplete Dominance
blending together of two alleles
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Deletion
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed
Insertion
Change to a chromosome in which more is added to a fragment of the chromosome
Duplication
change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated
Translocation
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
Phenotype
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
Genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
Homozygous
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
Gene Regulation
ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment
Gene
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
Chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Mutation
(biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
Enzyme
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
Eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
Prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
Organelle
a structure that carries out specific activities in the cell
Probability
the quality of being probable