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Terms in this set (19)

The cognitive model sees addiction as due to distorted thinking relating to dysfunctional beliefs, like social functioning being dependent upon drug use. These maladaptive processes relate to mood causing addicts to believe that happiness is impossible without drugs.
Initiation: expectancy theory, whether they expect positive or negative effects of their behaviour. Brandon et al proposes that behaviour escalates into addiction depending on the individual costs and benefits of that activity. Adolescent smokers report smoking when they are experiencing negative moods (Kassel et al) and that smoking will decrease the intensity of that mood (Brandon and Baker).
Maintenance: Brandon et al suggests that as an addiction develops, the activity is influenced less by conscious experiences and more by unconscious expectancies involving automatic processing. This would explain the loss of control most addicts experience in their behaviour and the difficulties they are experiencing in abstaining.
Tate et al. told 2 groups of smokers, one, that they would experience somatic effects during a period of abstinence, and the other, that they would experience no effects. Those told to expect somatic problems experienced severe complaints than a control group who hadn't been told to expect this.
Relapse: assessing costs and benefits, affect an individuals' readiness to quit and make it more likely that they will relapse. Those who see smoking as having high benefits and quitting having few, are far more likely to relapse than making an attempt to quit.
Bio theory of personality dimensions, inc, extraverts seek external stimuli to arouse them, people high in neuroticism such as anxiety and high in psychoticism such as impulsivity, reacting with little forethought.
The tridimensional theory, Cloniger proposed 3 personality traits that predispose individuals towards substance dependence they inc, novelty seeking, harm avoidance e.g. worrying, and reward dependence.
Smoking increases stress levels, even though it is supposed to reduce them, people become stressed when they cannot smoke, whereas before they were stressed about other life events, so instead of eliminating stress, it is just causing it in another format. correlation and causation. heightened levels of stress among poorer people, easy access to drugs as a way of earning money.
Little is known as to why adolescents stick to the demands of their social group when it clearly conflicts with their own concerns to maintain a healthy lifestyle (but fast metabolism so not bothered). Older people are reluctant to admit to or talk about their addictions and dependency problems my be discrete, e.g. taking medication for old ladies and public drinking for youths
Personality, +ve correlation between personality traits and addiction but which causes the other? Belin found personality to come first as the 'sensation seekers' immediately take up large doses and didn't become addicted, those who took smaller doses over a long period of time became addicted. Those who become addicted could have high levels of dopamine from a hypersensitive dopamine response system (Buckholtz et al). When people with Parkinson's disease were treated with drugs that increased dopamine levels, there found to be a 3.5 fold increase in impulse disorders.
Sulkunen believes that the media are a rich source of lay beliefs about substance abuse and misuse e.g. in the 1990's the use of recreational drugs inspired a number of drug-related films such as Trainspotting which revealed the world of a heroin addict, some found quite satisfying.
He collects 140 scenes from 47 films inc gambling, smoking, drugs and alcohol, they were seen as a form of excitement to the ordinary day, enjoyment, a way of alleviating a particular problems and in the case of the film 'Human Traffic' a way of resolving relationship problems.
In adolescents, Waylen et al found teenagers were more likely to smoke if they had seen a large number of films depicted smoking, even if their friends do not.
Now, television is promoting more healthy life styles, tobacco publication has been banned on TV, and people are only to smoke outside, over 21's only allowed in casinos but efforts of treatment are hampered by the motivation of the addict. Just providing more knowledge on the subject doesn't necessarily mean they will quit because of this because this is only controlling one part of the complex problem, treatment relies on high levels of self efficacy.
Boyd argued that not all films depict drug use as positive but some show the negative consequences such as rape and physical degradation in an attempt to put people off the idea. Some US filmmakers are also offered financial incentives to depict use in a negative way.
Why don't drug campaigns always work? Well, since they are on so frequently, messages in the campaigns are not particularly novel. Johnston et al found that youths who watched the campaign took the message that their friends were using marijuana and so were more likely to imitate. As well as showing them all the different types available.
National lottery adverts are often a great stimulus for gamblers, especially double rollovers, bingo websites like gala, are very difficult to avoid.
TPB (Ajzen) is an adaptation of the earlier theory of reasoned action which perceived addictive behaviours and attempts to manage or refrain from, as due to decision making and factors supporting decision making, rather than predisposing factors. A new component of self-confidence and skills will help them to overcome difficulties and achieve abstention. If an individual thinks they are unable to quit smoking, they will not even try. Perceive behavioural control has a direct effect on behaviour, bypassing behavioural intentions.
- Behavioural beliefs, linking behaviour to expected outcomes, will the behaviour be positively or negatively valued.
- Normative beliefs, 'perceived' beliefs such as being accepted into a popularity social group and the pressures they will face if not done the deed.
- Control beliefs, involves the perceived factors that will hinder performance and are seen as determining perceived behavioural control. With the control, accurate measurement of perceived factors and the intention, all can be used to predict behaviour by the individuals willingness.

TPB allows that assessment of motives and personal beliefs in their resolve to quit, resist withdrawal effect and cravings. A persons perceived behavioural control must be high enough to convince them that they can conquer all difficulties that they come into contact with.
Oh and Hsu used a Q to assess gamblers previous behaviour, social norms, attitudes and perceived behavioural control and intentions. A positive correlation was found between attitudes and intentions and actual behaviour, supporting the model.
Goodie found that chronic gamblers were overconfident in their wages compared to social gamblers, indicating that perceived behavioural control differ between addicts and non-addicts.
Self report evidence ^^^ addicts may play down their degree of dependency. Additional factors also need to be considered, especially anticipated regret and the strength of emotional disappointment if the intended behaviour is not achieved.
Doesn't account for individual differences, it states that those that possess the desired characteristics are only the ones that can quit!
Aim to promote behaviour change in whole populations by using the government, internet and community.
-Social inoculation tries to strengthen attempts to resist temptation to addictive activities by using defence statements.
-Fear arousal, is used in health campaigns to show the negative consequences of addictive practices and the effects it will have on friends, family etc.
-Targeting risk groups, such as younger children who are at a critical stage in development, could be more successful than providing the same information and treatments to all age groups.

In the workplace, smokers now must go outside which potentially decreases the risk of passive smoking and diseases related to this such as CHD. Implementation of work-based health programmes, make them compulsory, not get paid for the time you smoke etc.
However, bans on gambling led to an increase in criminal activity as activities were then taken underground.

Community programmes focus on group support and motivation rather than going through difficulties on your own, ultimately aimed at those unwilling to attend clinics.
Governments have banned tobacco advertising as well as increased tax, and alcohol cannot be portrayed as improving sexual or social success. Making drugs illegal in fact increased criminality and overdosing from other alternatives, such as common drugs. The reduction in advertising and increasing of tax could have the desired outcome of reducing tobacco abuse yet this can lead to a reduced tax revenue to be spent on other things such as health care. The lottery is seen as a 'positive promoter' and an acceptable pastime, so people that have stopped gambling in one area, may turn to this as they are 'allowed'.

Conrod et al devised a school based intervention to assess its success amongst adolescents with a high risk of substance abuse. By evaluating 2,506 using a Q inc, impulsivity, happiness, personality, 624 were identified as high risk and so underwent 2 90minute group sessions. Another group of 384 high risk students underwent no intervention. After 6 months, binge drinking was 55% lower in the intervention group, showing it is effective! but self report could produce flawed findings, and this was only focused on adolescents. not people who were already addicts.