Carlo Gesualdo - early 17th c. - madrigal - dissonant vs. consonant, chromatic vs. diatonic, emotion/dramatic - "before I part" after making love
Vedro 'l mio sol
Guilio Caccini - late 16th c. - solo madrigal - through-composed, not strophic, notated ornaments - played with figured bass - "I'll see the sun before I die."
L'Euridice: Nel pur ardor
Jacopo Peri - early 17th c. - earliest opera to survive - part 1 - wedding entertainment, powers of music - aria (air), tuneful rhythm, intro with sinfonia, drone sets rural setting
L'Euridice: Per quel vago boschetto
Jacopo Peri - early 17th c. - earliest opera to survive - part 2 - Dafne's speech, recitative, basso continuo support
L'Euridice: Non piango e non sospiro
Jacopo Peri - early 17th c. - earliest opera to survive - part 3 - Orfeo's recitative, dissonant grief, chromatic intensity
Kapsberger - early 17th c. - toccata (keyboard/plucked string, fast moving, light, imitative/fugal) - blocked chords for performer to play arpeggios, played on theorbo
L'Orfeo: Vi ricorda o boschi ombrosi
Claudio Monteverdi - early 17th c. - opera - aria/canzonetta, ritornello (violins, basso continuo, hapsichords) in beginning, Orfeo's happiness turning to joy (he won Euridice)
L'Orfeo: Ahi, caso acerbo
Claudio Monteverdi - early 17th c. - opera - dialogue in recitative - messenger crying over basso continuo, minor grief, chromaticism/tone changes, images,
L'Orfeo: Tu se' morta
Claudio Monteverdi - early 17th c. - opera - recitative - Orfeo's lament, build intensity with chromaticism and rhythm changes, quiet basso continuo building
Toccata n. 3
Girolamo Frescobali - early 17th c. - toccata - harpsichord, improvisatory style, figurations consistent but change often, contrasting moods/intensities, momentum
Sonata IV per il violino per sonar con due corde
Biagio Marini - early 17th c. - sonata - idiomatic writing -writing specific to one instrument and its abilities - 1st part is slow (like solo madrigal) above moving bass, 2nd part like an aria, 3rd part in triple meter - can add embellishments
Giasone: delizie contente
Franceso Cavalli - mid 17th c. - opera (most popular) - aria - Giasone's seeking sexual pleasure, neglecting to prepare for battle, his duties discussed
Giasone: Dell'antro magico
Franceso Cavalli - mid 17th c. - opera (most popular) - aria - Madea (witch) singing, provoke Pluto to protect Giasone while seeking Golden Fleece, chorus responds and give him magical ring - dance concludes the act
Barbara Strozzi - mid 17th c. - cantata (a multi-sectional secular work) - descending bass triple meter, dry text with delicate suspensions, dissonance, etc. - male poet tormented over lost love Lidia, lyrical sorrow
Arcangelo Corelli - late 17th c. - trio sonata - Allegro - gigue dance, fugal imitation, stretto (close overlapping sections), top pedal point
Concerto for Violin & Orch. in a minor: Mvt 1
Antonio Vivaldi - early 18th c. - Violin concerto (fast, slow, fast) - Allegro - opening ritornello, driving, motoric rhythm
Concerto for Violin & Orch. in a minor: Mvt 2
Antonio Vivaldi - early 18th c. - Violin concerto (fast, slow, fast) - Largo - solo violin over sustained chords of orchestral violins/violas, dreamlike, different key
Concerto for Violin & Orch. in a minor: Mvt 3
Antonio Vivaldi - early 18th c. - Violin concerto (fast, slow, fast) - Presto 2/4 - melody in top violins, solo in 1st violin, very imitative
Suite in a minor: Prelude
Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - no set meter, improvisational style like a toccata, arpeggiations - no repetitions, all explorational
Suite in a minor: Allemande
Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - 4/4 with upbeat, moderate, contrapuntal voices, no longer danced
Suite in a minor: Courante
Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - "running/flowing", triple/compound meter 3/2 or 6/8, metric ambiguity
Suite in a minor: Gigue
Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - rapid footwork, fast compound meter, wide leap, fugal imitation
Suite in a minor: Menuet
Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre - late 17th c. - keyboard suite - simple dance, elegant couple-dance, triple meter, rounded binary form
6e Ordre: Les Baricades Mysterieuses
Francois Couperin - early 18th c. - rondeau (theme opens and comes back later, like refrain) - dance, uses "character" titles for his pieces - arranges pieces into "ordres", not suites - harpsichord, for amateurs
Hippolyte et Aricie: Quel Bruit! Quel vents, o ciel!
Jean-Philippe Rameau - early 18th. c - opera - orchestra, winds, flute depict wind and rain rapidly pulsating, monster coming out of the sea - chorus cries to Diana for aid: "what noise, winds, mountains of water"
Hippolyte et Aricie: Quelle plainte en ces lieux m'appelle
Jean-Philippe Rameau - early 18th. c - opera - monologue as recitative, chorus/orchestra echo her guilt - intensity, lightning, thunder -Phedre finds out Hyppolyte is dead, she feels like she is at fault, he is innocent -
Prelude & Fugue in a minor
Johann Sebastian Bach - early 18th c. - organ prelude and fugue - Vivaldi influence, violinistic figurations resemble concerto solos, ritornello-like alternates expositions
Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland: Bewundert, o Menschen
Johann Sebastian Bach - early 18th c. - cantata - tenor de capo aria, melismatic, ABA form,
Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland: Lob sei Gott, dem Vater, ton
Johann Sebastian Bach - early 18th c. - cantata - 4part chorale, moving 8th notes, orchestra doubles vocal lines
Giulio Cesare: V'adoro pupille
George Frideric Handel - early 18th c. - opera - aria, based on orchestral material - A section has no ritornello in between (constant Cleopatra singing, expressing love for Caesar) - French/Italian influence - Caesar interjects in awe
18th c. German composer and organist - established forms, such as the cantata and fugue, adapted forms/textures/styles from Italy/France - "Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland" and "Prelude and Fugue in a minor",
Member of Florentine Camerata, composer solo songs with continuo - strophic ones called arias, others called madrigals, wrote in embellishments "Vedre 'l mio sol"
17th c. Italian composer - first significant composer of oratorio; developed recitative - "Jephte" (oratorio)
17th c. Italian composer - influential of public opera and use of basso continuo - dramatic effect and humor - "Giasone"
Mid 17th-early 18th c. Italian violinist and composer - instrumental music for strings, double stops, beautify melodies, strict counterpoint - "Trio Sonata"
Mid 17th-early 18th c. French composer - brought Corelli's 'trio sonata' to France - wrote keyboard pieces which were grouped into 'ordres' - "6e" and "25e"
Late 16th-early 17th c. Italian composer - wrote keyboard music, fast-note runs and imitations -expressiveness/improvisations - "Toccata n. 3"
16th c. Italian composer of expressive, chromatic madrigals - chromaticism and detailed text expression/word painting - "Io parto"
Late 17th-early 18th German/British composer of operas/oratorios/anthems/concertos - de capo aria - good reputation amongst composers - "Giulo Cesare"
Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre
17th-18th c. French harpsichordist/composer, wrote French suites, performed for King Louis XIV - "Suite in A Minor"
16-17th c. German-Italian composer development of theorbo/spontaneous changes/unusual rhythmic groupings - "Toccata arpeggiata"
17th c. French composer to Louis XIV - refused Italian influence, known for liveliness/fast movements, basso continuo (driving force) - "Cadmus et Hermione"
16th c. Italian composer of late Renaissance - madrigals, word-painting, chromaticism - "Solo e pensoso"
17th c. Italian violinist/composer - wrote for solo accompanied, expanded range - "Sonata IV"
16th-17th c. Italian composer - "inventor of opera" - combine music/drama; combine Renaissance polyphony and baroque basso continuo; madrigal rule-breaking - "Crud' Amarilli" and "L'Orfeo"
16th-17th c. Italian composer - period between Renaissance and Baroque - wanted to recreate Greek tragedy - "L'Euridice"
17th c. English Baroque composer - native composer, incorporated Italian/French stylistic elements, but devised English style; wrote for girl's boarding school - "Dido & Aeneas"
17th-18th c. French Baroque composer of opera - modern theory of harmony (treatise) - new use of harmony attack by Italian supporters; followed Lully - "Hippolyte et Aricie"
17th c. German composer applied monody (Italian) style to church music (German taste/language) - imitation/intense dissonance - "Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich"
17th c. Italian composer - secular vocal music, many of her texts written by her father - "Lagrime Mie"
17th-18th c. Italian baroque composer - wrote sacred and secular vocal and instrumental music, concertos,
A vocal solo in opera, cantatas, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompainment.
Late 16th-early 17th c. Italian strophic poem for a solo singer -- a lyrical monologue in an opera, cantata, or oratorio
De Capo Aria
Aria that opens with 2 contrasting sections, A & B. At the end of the B section, the singer and orchestra return to the beginning of the A section (with embellishments)
System of notation in which an instrumental bass line is written out on one or more players of keyboard, lute, or similar instruments to fill in the harmony with appropriate chords or improvised melodic lines.
Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.
Early Baroque genre in which a few instruments accompanied a solo singer performing a song based on a highly charged, emotional text
In the seventeenth century, a composition on a sacred text for one or more singers and instrumental accompaniment.
Genre or style of music in which groups of instruments or voices share a melody, usually in alternation, and almost always over a basso continuo.
In the 17th century madrigal, two separate trends can be identified: the solo madrigal, which involved a solo voice with basso continuo, and madrigals for two or more voices, also with basso continuo
Popular madrigal arranged for solo voice ex. "Vedro 'l mio sol"
Monteverdi's term for the style and practice of 16th c. polyphony. in contradiction to the seconda prattica
Monteverdi's "second practice"- named this when conservative contemporaries attacked his use of dissonance as improper to the contrapuntal style
An important group of musical amateurs who met to discuss the revival of the Greek dramatic style. - Peri, Caccini
Musical composition, usually on a religious theme, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra - ex. "Jephte"
Form of Lutheran church music in the 18th century combining poetic texts with texts drawn from chorales or the BIble, including recitatives, arias, choral settings, usually for one or more choruses ex. "Nun Komm, de Heiden Heiland"
Variations over a ground bass (slow, triple meter)
Baroque musical composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with full chords and rapid elaborate runs in a rhythmically free style ex. "Toccata n. 3" and "Toccata Arpeggiata"
Type of overture used in tragedie en musique and other genres, that opens with a slow, homophonic, and majestic section, followed by a faster second section that begins with imitation
French performance practice in which some notes with equal written time values are performed with unequal durations, usually as alternating long and short
Multi-movement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key. ex. "Suite in a minor"
Introductory piece for solo instrument, often in the style of an improvisation, or introductory movement in a multimovement work such as an opera or suite. ex. Bach's "Prelude & Fugue in a minor"
Stylized dance in binary form - moderately fast quadruple meter with almost continuous movement, beginning with an upbeat. Usually the first dance in a suite. ex. "Suite in a minor: Allemande"
Dance in binary form - in triple meter at a moderate tempo and with an upbeat, running/gliding steps - 3/2 to 6/4 ex. Suite in a minor: Courante
Slow dance in binary and in triple meter, often emphasizing the second beat - Spanish flare, accent on beat two - 3/2 or 3/4
Duple-time dance in binary form, with a half-measure upbeat and a characteristic rhythm of short-short-long.
Elegant dance in slow, triple time, usually the 3rd movement in a suite - ex. "Suite in a minor: Menuet"
In Italian, refrain; a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions.
Written for two solo melodic instruments and basso continuo (sometimes made of 2 instruments, 4 total)
Short work, usually for solo piano, that depicts or suggests a mood, personality, or scene. Often published in collections, and given a loosely evocative title.
Lutheran chorale cantata
a genre of sacred vocal music that employs the text and tune of a pre-existing Lutheran chorale in all or several of its movements
prelude & fugue
Two part pieces, written by Bach, played on organ. Slow virtuosic intro, multi-part fugue.
Two sets of 24 preludes and fugues for a solo keyboard instrument. Preludes and fugues are written in all 12 major and 12 minor keys
tragedy in music
Florentine Camerata - Members of the Camerata wanted to create a new vocal style based on the music of the ancient Greek tragedies. Most early baroque operas were based on Greek mythology and ancient history.
A descending tetrachordal basso ostinato employed as a musical signifier of grief ex. "Dido & Aeneas: When I am laid on earth"
Large Lute with extra bass strings, used especially in the 17th c. for performing basso continuo as accompaniment to singers or instruments.
Builders of the new family of string instruments that replaced the viol family of the Renaissance worked in this place in Italy.
17th c. English entertainment involving poetry, music, dance, costumes, choruses, and elaborate sets, originated in the French court ballet.
17th century French genre, an extensive musical-dramatic work with costumes, scenery, poetry, and dance that featured members of the court as well as professional dancers
a spoken play in which the more exotic, amorous and supernatural moments in the plot were sung and danced
ground bass aria
he entire melody is set over a repeated pattern in the bass ex. "Dido & Aeneas: When I am laid on earth"
Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text.
strophic hymn in the luthern tradition intended to be sung by the congregation, polyphonic, sacred, german
the compositional technique of having the musical sounds reinforce the words being sung.
note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and added interest
Creation of a musical composition while it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation
Artusi favored the prima practica, with strict counterpoint/dissonant rules, while Monteverdi favored the seconda practica, where counterpoint rules could be broken and text dominated over the music.
Opera performance aimed for public audiences; profit driven; audiences "taste" considered, more singing and dancing
Not for commission, performed in the courts; recitative more plot related, aria more strophic, real "stuff" and more emotions
French recitative style
Recitative style that focused on frequent meter changing, agitated rhythmic changes to accommodate text expression
Italian recitative style
Recitative style in which the words could be clearly understood, the rhythms of natural speech would be followed, and the music would convey the feeling of a whole passage
Claudio Monteverdi - late 16th c. - madrigal - bitter "love" with dissonances, breaking counterpoint rules
tragédie en musique
French 17th and 18th c. form of opera, pioneered by Jean-Baptiste Lully, that combined the French classic drama and ballet traditions with music, dances, and spectacles.
25e Ordre: La Visionnaire
Francois Couperin - early 18th c. - keyboard suite - like a French overture, slow first section, fast second section - majestic part moves into allemande style
Solo e Pensoso
Luca Marenzio - late 16th c. - madrigal - chromatic top voice, sensitive musical imagery - poet wandering in the fields (jagged melody with semitones) - lines becoming more complex
Stylized dance movement of a standard suite - binary form, marked by fast compound meter such as 6/4 or 12/8 with wide melodic leaps and continuous triplets. The two sections usually both begin with imitation.