72 terms

Chapter 12-15 Vocabulary

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Alamo
Franciscan mission at San Antonio that was the site of a siege and massacre of Texans by Mexican troops in 1836. March 1836, 187 Texans located at the Alamo fought against 5,000 Mexican troops for 13 days. The Mexican troops were led by the Mexican President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. On March 6th Santa Anna ordered the final assault killing all the defenders of the Alamo and 1,500 Mexican lives. Defenders that died include Commander William Travis, Jim Bowie and Davy Crocket. The Alamo is important because less than two months after the battle, the Mexican army was routed and forced to grant Texas Independence from Mexico.
Steven Austin
Took up the land grant of 18,000 squares miles of territory within Texas, given to his father by the Mexican government in 1821 and therefore became the first American impresario or land agent. Austin and other land agents owned their land because of formal contracts with the Mexican government and in exchange they agreed that he and his colonists would become Mexican citizens and would adopt Catholicism. Due to the fact that Austin had picked his colonists, there were 7,000 Americans and 4,000 Tejanos living in Texas in 1830. Despite Austin's exchange, no one became Mexican citizens or adopted Catholicism. In Texas, Austin's settlers were producing a large amount of cotton and by 1830 Americans in Texas ignored the border between US and Mexican Texas, sending $500,000 worth of goods yearly to New Orleans.
Aroostook War
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 left unresolved boundary between Maine and its Canadian neighbors, New Brunswick and Quebec. When Maine became a state in 1820 and began granting land to settlers in the Aroostook Valley, disregarding British claims, the situation became more problematic. Canadian lumberjacks arrived in the Aroostook area during the winter of 1838-1839 in order to cut timber. In February, they seized the American land agent whose job had been to force them out. Under pressure from Maine, the U.S. Congress authorized a force of 50,000 men and appropriated ten million dollars to address the crisis, and Maine raised forces for the anticipated fight and actually sent 10,000 troops into the disputed Aroostook Valley region, but General Winfield Scott arrived and persuaded the Maine and New Brunswick authorities to agree to submit the matter to a commission. The matter was eventually resolved in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. The Aroostook War was an undeclared and bloodless conflict which heightened tensions between Britain and the United States.
Texas War of Independence
The Texas Revolution began in 1835 when the Americans thwarted the attempts of Mexican soldiers, under the command of Dictator Santa Anna, to disarm them. On March 2, 1836, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. Although the hastily gathered Texas army won several of the initial battles, they suffered a tragic defeat at the San Antonio mission known as the Alamo. It was there that 187 Texan rebels heroically held off over 2000 Mexican soldiers for 12 days. "Remember the Alamo" became the rallying cry of the rebels and Santa Anna was finally defeated and captured at the Battle of San Jacinto, where he was forced to recognize the independence of Texas. Ten years later, Texas was annexed by the United States.
California Gold-rush
The California gold rush started at the first sighting of gold in January 1848. Soon after the sighting of gold, people rushed from all of the states to California in order to get their shot at profit. Also, people came from such countries as Mexico, Europe and Asia. Due to the gold rush, the city of San Fransisco was built up and became an economical city. Mining camps became very profitable and became forms of employment for the unemployed and immigrants. The California gold rush caused for an increase of moving westward in search of riches.
Pike's Peak
Pikes Peak is one the most famous peaks of this time period. This mountain is located in Colorado in the front range of the Rockys. Pikes peak is best known for its involvement in the gold rush. Pikes peak was encased in gold and caused for a huge attraction of money seekers. In 1860, gold coins started to be minted in the area. Pikes peak was part of the gold rush. ( see gold rush for additional information). Pikes peak caused for the increase of gold marketing and selling.
Mexican Cession
Mexican-American War ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848)
American diplomat Nicholas Trist sent by Polk along with American army
US gained California and Mexico (present-day Arizona, Utah, Nevada, part of Colorado)
Rio Grande became boundary of Texas
US paid $15 million for land and assumed claims of American citizens against Mexico
Opposition in Senate (Whigs thought it would expand slavery, Democrats wanted all of Mexico)
Wilmot Proviso
August 1846, few months after beginning of Mexican-American War
Proposed by Congressman David Wilmot, Democrat from PA
Military appropriations bill should be amended to ban slavery in any of the new territories acquired from Mexico
Passed the House twice, defeated in Senate
Sectional interest became more important than party loyalty (southern Whigs joined southern Democrats, northern Democrats joined northern Whigs)
Caused first breakdown of national party system and reopen of slavery debate
Joseph Smith
1830 founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon Church), based on teachings of the Book of Mormon
Product of Burned-Over District, gained new followers and had many critics
Most successful communitarian movement of time; close cooperation and hard work were key
Began in New York, moved to Ohio, then Missouri, settled in Illinois 1839
1844 he introduced new doctrine of polygamy, dissension led to intervention of outsiders,

he and his brother were peacefully arrested
Both men were killed by a mob (their jailers failed to protect them)
Sectionalism
The division of the country into sections, based on beliefs. Best demonstrated during Civil War, with North and South. Sectionalism played an important role in the antebellum period and years prior to the Civil War.
Gag Rule
A Gag Rule is a rule prohibiting discussion or debate on a certain topic. The Gag Rule, in the case of the United States, prohibited debate or discussion of slavery in congress for a period of 10 year. The Gag Rule in the US was enacted on March 15, 1836.
Clipper Ships
Clipper ships were fast sailing ships made to ship more cargo in less time. Clipper ships were first produced in 1843, primarily by Britain and the United States, and had 3 masts and a square rig. They were long and narrow, and couldn't carry as much cargo as larger ships, but enough that they greatly increased shipping efficiency, being used to complete longer voyages, to places such as China, the Pacific, South America, and California (via Cape Horn). The era of clipper ships ended in 1869, due to the rise of steam ships and the opening of the Suez Canal.
"Dark Horse" Candidate- James K. Polk
A candidate that receives a surprisingly large amount of success and support, usually when others are at a political stalemate. This term comes from betting on horse racing. James K. Polk was elected at the time Congress was at a deadlock between antislavery/Texas Martin Van Buren and proslavery/Texas John C. Calhoun.
John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
On October 16th, 1859, John Brown and 19 followers (including his three sons) took control of the national armory in Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Their plan was to use the weapons to start a major slave revolt. On the 16th they captured several watchmen, townspeople, and the great-grandnephew of George Washington from the town; they also cut the telegraph wires and held up a B&O train for 5 hours to avoid word getting to Washington. However, for unknown reasons, Brown let the train through and the conductor alerted the authorities, and soon both townspeople and a militia lead by Robert E. Lee had the armory surrounded. Realizing things were going downhill fast; Brown grabbed nine captives and took shelter in the engine house, which has been nicknamed "John Brown's Fort". Townspeople were shot, one of the raiders panicked and tried to swim away (he was brutally shot) and when Brown sent two men, one his son, out with a white flag, they were captured. Finally the marines broke down the door and captured everyone alive.
Sojourner Truth
After escaping from her owner with her daughter, Sophia, she became a famous African American abolitionist.She rejected ideas of colonization and called for slavery to come to an end. She also believed in equal treatment of black people. In the early 1830s she spoke at national conventions held by black abolitionist societies in the north. She gave first hand accounts of slavery.
Battle of San Jacinto
In 1834 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna made himself dictator of Mexico. He insisted on enforcing Mexico's laws in Texas. American settlers led by Sam Houston revolted and declared Texas to be an independent republic. At the Battle of San Jacinto River an army under the command of Sam Houston caught the Mexicans by surprise and captured Santa Anna. Under threat of death Santa Anna was forced to sign a treaty that recognized Texas's independence and granted the new republic all territory north of the Rio Grande. Later, the Mexican legislature rejected the treaty insisting Texas was still part of Mexico.
The Bear Flag Republic
In June 1846, during the war with Mexico, Stephen Kearney fought the Mexicans and succeeded in taking Santa Fe, the New Mexico territory, and Southern California. John C. Fremont, with only several dozen soldiers, navy officers, and American civilians who recently settled in California, quickly overthrew Mexican rule in Northern California. They proclaimed California an independent republic with a bear on its flag (what is now known as the Flag Republic).
Lewis Cass/ Popular Sovereignty
Lewis Cass was a Democratic senator from Michigan who proposed a compromise solution for the sectional conflicts over territories, in relation to whether they should be free or slave. Cass suggested to Congress that the people of the territory/state vote on whether they should allow slavery. This approach to the problem was called "popular sovereignty". In the Election of 1848, Cass was nominated as the Democratic candidate against General Zachary Taylor(Whig) and Martin Van Buren(Free-Soil party). Cass was defeated by a small amount, but stood by his idea of popular sovereignty throughout the campaign. Cass' solution was only one of the many that was proposed in the 1840s due to conflict within the territories, and is important because it shows another sectional division and the constant need for solutions if the Union was to stay together.
Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was a network of "conductors" and "stations" that were used to help escaped slaves reach freedom in a northern state or Canada. This was a necessary escape route after the Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850, due to the fact that fugitives were constantly being hunted. The 'Railroad' was not well organized, and was lead mostly by northern free blacks and ex-slaves, along with a few white abolitionists. One escaped slave was Harriet Tubman, who made at least 19 trips down to the South to help about 300 slaves escape. This Underground Railroad was a risky venture, and only was able to help a small portion of the slave community. However, it was an important display of defiance and was a source of hope for many slaves.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
After the Election of 1852, the Democrats were in power in both the Congress and White House. Senator Stephen A. Douglass (Illinois) proposed a plan to build a transcontinental railroad through Central US, with a major terminal in Chicago(a place where Douglass had many real estate investments). To gain southern approval on this proposal, Douglass presented another bill which would divide the Nebraska Territory into Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory(both north of the 36 30' line). This bill stated that the people of those two territories would be free to decide if they wanted slavery. After debating, the Congress passed the bill, and President Pierce passed it into law in 1854 as the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This Act was very important, because it brought back the sectional tension that had been somewhat dispelled by the Compromise of 1850. It also removed the Compromise of 1820 and lead directly to the creation of a new antislavery party called the Republicans, made entirely up of Westerners and Northerners.
Crittenden Compromise
Trying to please the South, Kentucky Senator John Crittenden proposed a constitutional amendment. This amendment would guarantee the South's right to have slaves in all territories south of 30˚36'(the Missouri Compromise line). Abraham Lincoln, the President-elect, refused this compromise because he believed that it violated the Republican opinion against extending slavery into those territories.
Lone Star Republic
The Lone Star Republic was another name for the Republic of Texas. The Lone Star Republic gained its independence after Santa Anna was captured at the Battle of San Jacinto. In 1836, the American army forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty acknowledging their independence and granting them the land north of the Rio Grande. Mexico refused to recognize this border and Texan independence. Sam Houston was the first president of the republic. They were the Lone Star Republic from 1836 to 1845, when they were annexed to the United States.
Secession Crisis
The secession crisis began for several reasons. First, the congressional elections worried the South because the Republicans did very well. Second, they were angry about the high tariffs because it hurt their dependence on exporting cotton. Third, they feared that a Republican victory in the election of 1860 would be disastrous for their economy and their "constitutional rights". The final thing that led to their secession was the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas and Louisiana seceded before the fall of Fort Sumter. Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas seceded after the fall of Fort Sumter. Of these states, South Carolina was the only state to unanimously secede. The Southerners seceded because at this point they believed that there was no other choice.
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Benton was the senator of Missouri. Benton had been trading with India since the 1820s along the Missouri and Columbia River. Benton, among others, realized that Pacific trade would increase the U.S acquired the harbors along the western coast. These harbors included Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, and San Diego Bay. Puget Sound was shared with Britain ,and the San Francisco and San Diego Bay both belonged to Mexico. After the Panic of 1837 many politicians believed that trade with Asia would allow the economy to improve.
Free Soil Movement
The free soil movement involved the created if the Free Soil party in 1848. The main goals of this party were to prevent the expansion of slavery, advocate free homesteads to farmers, and to make internal improvements. This party consisted of northerners who were racist and/or took the position of antislavery. The members of this party didn't want to end slavery, they just wanted to ensure that the seceded western land was only open to whites. The slogan for this party was, "free soil, free labor, and free men."
Liberty Party
The liberty party was created in 1840 by northerners who felt that William Garrison's American Antislavery Society would not be as effective as taking political action would be. Their decision to create this party caused a split in the abolitionists movement. James Birney ran for president in 1840 and 1844 as a member of the Liberty Party. The party focused on ending slavery both politically and legally.
Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin
Ø The most successful novel of the 1800s, published in 1851
o Within ten years, the novel sold 2,000,000 copies.
Ø Contained lurid details of slavery from firsthand accounts
Ø Stowe was the daughter of clergyman Lyman Beecher, and throughout her life was active in antislavery work
Ø Uncle Tom, the character in the novel, was thought to be "Christ-like"
o He endured cruel treatment from Simon Legree, his master
Ø The novel was adapted to a play, engaging more audiences
Ø The novel spoke to the growing concerns of the American people, inciting some outrage at the cruelty that had gone either unnoticed, or had a blind-eye turned to its details
George Fitzhugh and Cannibals All
Fitzhugh was probably the most well-known for his proslavery arguments
· His novels: Sociology for the South, and Cannibals All!
· Attacked the capitalist wage system of the North (factory workers, etc.); called it worse than slavery
· Argued that familial bonds that developed on plantations (among the following bullets) all were proof that slavery was a positive good for the slave and the master alike, in reaction to northern novels saying just the opposite
o Slavery was endorsed by the Bible
o Firmly grounded in philosophy and history
The Know-Nothing Party
The core of this party (which was originally entitled the American Party) were only native-born protestants who pledged never to vote for a Catholic, explaining that Catholics took their orders directly from the Pope in Rome, and this new country, in their minds, would not be governed and its issues would not be decided by anyone outside the country. The name comes from when they were questioned about their beliefs; the response, "I know nothing". The party succeeded (came after) the Whigs, as former members of the Whig Party would have been known to come to this new one. The new party had startling victories in MA and PA, prompting a PA democrat to exclaim they were "deranged on Nativism." In 1855, the party split into antislavery and pro slavery wings, from their respective regions, the North and South. Former Know-Nothings shifted their support to a new party with an expansionist policy, the Republican Party, in 1854.
The Birth of the Republican Party
Founded in 1854 in the aftermath of the controversy over the Kansas-Nebraska act
Consisted of former northern Whigs opposing slavery absolutely, Free-Soil Party supporters opposing the expansion of slaver but were willing to tolerate it in the South, and many northern reformers concerned about temperance and Catholocism
Also attracted the merchants and industrialists of the old Whig party who wanted a strong national government to promote economic growth by supporting a protective tariff as well as transportation improvements and cheap land for western families
Nearly won it's first presidential election- John C. Fremont won 33% of the popular vote in 1856
IN 1860 Abraham Lincoln (Republican candidate) won 40% and was elected in a 4 way race
"Bleeding Kansas"
Violence between pro- and antislavery forces in Kansas Territory after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854
First to claim land in Kansas were residents of Missouri- a slave state; they took up land claims and established pro-slavery towns such as Leavenworth, Kickapoo, and Atchison this enabled them to swamp Kansas elections with Missouri votes- in 1855 6,307 ballots were cast in a territory with less than 3,000 eligible voters
Most fraudulent votes were cast by "border ruffians" or frontiersmen who boasted that they could "scream louder, jump higher, shoot closer, get drunker at night and wake up soberer in the morning than any man this side of the Rocky Mountains"
Summer of 1854 first party of New Englanders arrived and established free-soil towns such as Lawrence; Among the New England settlers was Rev. Samuel Adair who settled in Osawatomie a free-soil stronghold, other migrants like them were free-soilers and religious reformers
Non-drinking William Phillips refused a friendly offer of a drink from a Missourian causing an outburst from a ruffian-soon Kansas was a bloody battle ground
1856 open warfare began; pro-slavery burned /looted town of Lawrence; to retaliate John Brown led a raid on pro-slavery settlers on Pottawatomie Creek, killing 5 unarmed people; a wave of violence followed, and peaceful residents were often forced to flee to military forts for safety
The Charles Sumner/Preston Brooks Incident
May 19th 1856 Charles Sumner a Republican from Massachusetts gave a two-day speech in the US Senate using the accusatory/abusive style favored by abolitionists
In the speech he singled out Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina, and accused him of choosing "the harlot, slavery" as his mistress
Preston Brooks, nephew of senator Butler in an attempt to avenge the attack on his uncles honer and believing his actions justifiable he trapped Sumner at his desk and beat him until his cane broke leaving Sumner with permanent injuries
Event showed the split of the North and South behavioral codes
Beecher's Bibles
It was another term for Sharps rifles that were used during the Kansas struggle to remain as a free state and avoid becoming a slave state. In March, 1856 in New Haven, CT Henry Ward Beecher addressed a meeting where those who attended donated and raised funds to buy equipment (weapons) in order to equip a company of free-state emigrants to Kansas. Beecher said that for Kansas slaveholders, a Sharps rifle was a greater moral argument than a Bible. As a result, Beecher ordered these guns but called the order as books and bibles in order to hide the identity of the contents from the pro-slavery men and to keep the emigrant aid companies from getting into trouble with the federal and state authorities who had forbidden the shipping of firearms to the region.
Border Ruffians
In the fall of 1854, Senator David Atchison of Missouri led over 1,700 men from Missouri into Kansas to vote for their pro-slavery representative. These were the infamous "Border Ruffians," who threatened to shoot, burn and hang those who opposed slavery. Border ruffians usually would vote illegally in Kansas elections, steal horses, and raid several towns. Anti-slavery Kansans responded kindly, especially in John Brown's massacre of five pro-slavery settlers on Pottawatomie Creek. A spirit of lawlessness prompted both groups to use extreme measures and conflicts between the border ruffians and their antislavery foes which eventually became known as "Bleeding Kansas" for the territory. Violence between these groups did not decline until 1859, and tensions remained high, even through the outbreak of the Civil War.
Sutter's MIll
Sutter's Mill was a sawmill owned by John Sutter and James W. Marshall. It was located in Coloma, California, at the bank of the South Fork American River. Sutter's Mill is most famous for its association with the California Gold Rush. In January 1848, Marshall found small flakes of gold at Sutter's Mill. After this discovery at the mill, the "gold rush" era began and many people from the east emigrated to find fortune.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom, negotiated in 1850 by John M. Clayton and Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer. It was negotiated in response to attempts to build the Nicaragua Canal, which would connect the Pacific and the Atlantic. The treaty had four essential points:
1. It bound both parties not to "obtain or maintain" any exclusive control of the proposed canal, or unequal advantage in its use.
2. It guaranteed the neutralization of the canal.
3. It declared that the parties agreed "to extend their protection by treaty stipulation to any other practicable communications, whether by canal or railway, across the isthmus which connects North and South America."
4. Finally, it stipulated that neither signatory would ever "occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito Coast or any part of Central America," nor make use of any protectorate or alliance, present or future, to such ends.
Compromise of 1850 (provisions)
The Compromise of 1850 was actually 5 separate bills with 3 separate compromises. First, it admitted California as a free state but allowed the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide about the slave trade when they applied for statehood (popular sovereignty). Also, Texas had to cede land to the New Mexico Territory with $10 million of their debts taken away by the government in return. The slave trade (though not slavery) was ended in the District of Columbia. Finally, it passed a new fugitive slave law to enforce the constitutional provision stating that a slave escaping into a free state should be delivered back to the owner.
Gadsden Purchase
This was a $10 million purchase of pats of present-day New Mexico and Arizona. It added about 30,000 square miles to the United States in 1853. The main purpose of this purchase was to create a southern transcontinental railroad route through the arid southwestern borderland. It stretched from El Paso west to the Colorado River. It was essentially all the land north of the Rio Grande. The land was very rich in copper deposits. It was signed by James Gadsden, who was the American ambassador to Mexico. It was the last large territory the U.S. acquired.
Overland Trails
Santa Fe
The Santa Fe trail was a 900-mile trail that was opened by American merchants for trading purposes, following Mexico's liberalization of the trading policies of Spain, formerly very restrictive. It was established in 1821, and was a popular path to get to California, Oregon, and the Mormon community in Utah.
Oregon Trail
This was one of the famous Overland trails that was over 2,000 miles long. It brought American settlers from the Midwest to new settlements in Oregon, California, and Utah. Independence, Missouri was the most common starting point to the trail. Previously dangerous, it became safer and safer as more and more people traveled over it. It was hugely traveled during the 1840s and 1850s.
Mormon
This trail was first used in 1846, when Bingham Young led a group of about 150 Mormon settlers, unhappy with their treatment in their former homes. They traveled through the western U.S. and settled by the Great Salt Lake in Utah. They were isolated there for a bit, but with the California Gold Rush of 1849, more and more people were traveling on the path trailblazed by the Mormons. Their settlement by the Great Salt Lake was very successful.
California
A trail of about 2,000 miles that took pioneers across the western part of the United States into what is now California. The first half went along the same path as the Oregon trail, but then veered south along the Humboldt River to lead settlers into California. It was used heavily from 1845 to 1869, until the Transcontinental Railroad was established.
Manifest Destiny
This term for westward expansion was first written by John L. O'Sullivan in 1845. He, along with many other Americans, believed it was a divine mission of the U.S. to extend its power across North America. This belief was most popular in the 1840's. Nationalism, population increase, economic development, technological advances, and reform ideals all contributed to this belief. Northerners believed manifest destiny was simply an excuse to spread slavery.
Ostend Manifesto
Polk wanted to buy Cuba from Spain, but Spain refused to sell. In 1852, Franklin Pierce became president. He sent 3 diplomats to Ostend, Belgium and negotiated with Spain to buy Cuba. The manifesto leaked to the press, and caused an angry reaction from Congress, causing Pierce to drop the scheme.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Ended the Aroostook War, in treaty negotiated by Secretary of State Daniel Webster and British ambassador, Lord Alexander Ashburton. Split disputed territory between Maine and British Canada. Settled boundary of Minnesota territory, leaving important iron-rich Mesabi range on U.S. side of the border
"Fifty-four forty or fight!"
Democratic slogan that appealed strongly to Western Americans. Was in reference to line of lattitude that marked the border between Oregon Territory and Russian Alaska. James Polk favored the "reoccupation" of all of Oregon.
Freeport Doctrine
The Freeport Doctrine was written in Freeport, Illinois during the debates of Lincoln and Douglas for senator (1858). It was developed by Stephen Douglas and said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. it was unpopular with southerners, and thus cost him the election. Douglas refused to say whether he believed slavery was right or wrong. In summary, his doctrine stated that unless the people wanted slavery in their state, they had the right to not pass slave laws.
Southern "Fire- Eaters"
Refers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation (during the 1850's), which became known as the Confederate States of America. Edmund Ruffin was one of the most well known fire-eaters. They felt strong hatred towards the north and were a great contributing factor to sectionalism. They even wanted a constitutional amendment protecting slavery.
Election of 1860
Democrats-1. Split at its 1860 Convention in Charleston, South Carolina when a platform defending slavery was defeated and Deep South delegates walked out.
2. At a splinter convention held at Baltimore, Maryland, Stephen Douglas of Illinois was nominated as presidential candidate on a platform opposing any Congressional interference with slavery.
3. Southern delegates met and nominated John Breckenridge of Kentucky as a candidate on a pro- slavery platform.
Republicans-
1. By this time a overtly sectional and decidedly opposed to slavery draw in most northerners with a platform favoring a homestead act, a protective tariff, and transportation improvements.
2. The platform opposed the extension of slavery but defended the right of states to control their own "domestic institutions."
3. Abraham Lincoln is nominated presidential candidate on the third ballot.
Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
General Santa Anna
In 1834 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna named himself dictator of Mexico, abolishing the federal system of government. He insisted on enforcing Mexico's laws in Texas, angering the American settlers to the point of revolting(1836). Was the leader of the Mexican troop during the Alamo and granted Texas to the US 2 months after the Alamo. When the settlers declared Texas to be an independent republic, Santa Anna led his troops to a harsh victory at the Alamo. Greatly outnumbering the Texans at this battle, Santa Anna cruelly killled every American defender. Later, at the Battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna was captured and threatened until he signed a treaty recognizing Texas as independent with the border of the Rio Grande.
Sam Houston
Upon the death of his father, Moses Austin, who had a large land grant to farm in Texas, Sam Houston gathered 300 families to settle in Texas. From this point, a steady number of settlers continued coming, slowly populating the vast frontier. When Santa Anna came to power and insisted on enforcing Mexico's laws in Texas, Houston lead the rebellion and declared Texas independent in 1836. Houston also lead the capture of Santa Anna at San Jacinto, and applied for annexation after defeating the Mexicans.
Walker Expedition
In 1853 he gained notoriety by attempting to seize and govern the Mexican province of Lower California. In 1855 he led a small band of mercenaries to Nicaragua, and after overthrowing the government, he briefly served as president (1856-57). With visions of uniting all the Central American republics under his control, he announced plans to build a canal linking the Atlantic and the Pacific, but he was ousted in 1857 by agents of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose commercial interests he had opposed; an attempt to return to Nicaragua later that year was foiled. In 1860, he landed in Honduras with yet another scheme to seize power; but he was arrested, and after a Honduran court martial, was shot by a firing squad.
Omnipresent
present at all places at one time; The omnipresent God.
Escalate
to increase in intensity, magnitude, etc.: The war was escalated by many factors.
To fall, rise, go up, or go down, as in an escalator
Shrill
Definition: high-pitched and piercing in sound
Sentence: A shrill cry.
Annexation
Definition: the act or instance of annexing (adding), especially new territory
Sentence: The annexation of Texas to the United States was in 1845.
Ethnocentric
Definition: the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group
Sentence: The American who migrated to California treated the Mexicans with ethnocentric views.
Inexorable
Definition: not to be persuaded, moved, or affected by prayers
Sentence: Southerners were inexorable in their views on the topic of slavery.
Mexican War
The U.S. annexation of Texas immediately led to problems with Mexico. In 1845, President Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to talk to with the Mexican government. Polk wanted Slidell to persuade Mexico to sell the California and New Mexico territories to the United States and to settle the dispute over the Texas border. The Mexican government refused to sell California and insisted that the southern border of Texas was on the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande River as Polk insisted. While waiting for Mexico City's response to the offer, Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to move his troops to the Rio Grande across territory that was claimed by Mexico. A Mexican Army crossed the river and captured and killed 11 American army patrol men. Polk used this as his justification for war against Mexico. Most of the war was fought on Mexican territory by small American armies. On February 2, 1848, after 2 years of fighting, Mexico and the United States signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In this treaty, Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the United States and accepted the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas. The U.S. agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico and assume $2 million in claims against them.
Zachary Taylor
He enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1808 and was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the infantry that same year. Taylor quickly became a military hero during the War of 1812 while serving under General William Henry Harrison. He distinguished himself during the Black Hawk War in 1832 and the Second Seminole War in Florida between 1835 and 1842. He was promoted to brigadier general in 1837 after his victory at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee. In 1845, soon after the annexation of Texas, President Polk ordered Taylor and an army of four thousand men to the Rio Grande. Border hostilities with Mexico over the boundary between the two countries escalated into full battles in May of 1845. Taylor's troops defeated an invading Mexican army at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. That same month the United States declared war on Mexico. Taylor and his army invaded Mexico and advanced to Monterrey, capturing the city in late September. His military career was put in doubt, however, when a letter became public in which Taylor criticized President Polk and his secretary of war, William L. Marcy. An angry Polk could not relieve the popular war hero of his command, but he stripped Taylor of his best troops and ordered him to adopt a defensive posture. Taylor, who was nicknamed "Old Rough and Ready," disobeyed Polk's orders and defeated a Mexican army that outnumbered his troops by four to one at the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847. This stunning victory guaranteed Taylor the status of national hero. The Whig Party nominated Taylor as its presidential candidate in 1848, even though Taylor had no interest in politics (he had never voted in an election) and was a slave owner. Taylor defeated the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass, in the November general election. Taylor's brief service as president was unremarkable. Having no political background, Taylor was unprepared for the give-and-take of Washington politics. The biggest issue facing him was statehood for California and New Mexico, which had been acquired from Mexico as a result of the war. Although he owned slaves, Taylor was opposed to the expansion of slavery into the new territories, a position that alienated Southern Whigs and Democrats in Congress. When California voted to prohibit slavery, the South opposed its admission to the Union. Attempts by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky to negotiate a compromise were shot down by Taylor. As this political conflict unfolded in the summer of 1850, Taylor contracted cholera. He died on July 9, 1850, in Washington, D.C. Taylor was succeeded by Vice President, Millard Fillmore, who quickly agreed to resolve the Mexican territories issue with the Compromise of 1850. This act admitted California into the Union as a free state, gave the territories of Utah and New Mexico the right to determine the slavery issue for themselves at the time of their admission to the Union, outlawed the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and gave the federal government the right to return fugitive slaves in the Fugitive Slave Act.
John C. Fremont "The Path-finder"
After meeting with President James K. Polk, he left Washington, D.C. on May 15, 1845. He raised a group of 62 volunteers in Saint Louis. He arrived at Sutter's Fort, on December 10, 1845. He went to Monterrey, California, to talk with the American consul, Thomas Larkin, and Mexican major-domo Jose Castro. In 1846, with the arrival of the USS Congress, Fremont was appointed lieutenant colonel of the California Battalion, also called U.S. Mounted Rifles, which he had helped form with his survey crew and volunteers from the Bear Flag Republic, now totaling 428 men. In June 1846, at San Rafael mission, Fremont sent three men, one of which was Kit Carson, to confront three unarmed men debarking from a boat at Point San Pedro. Kit Carson asked Fremont whether they should be taken prisoner. Fremont replied, "I have got no room for prisoners." They then advanced on the three and deliberately shot and killed them. One of them was an old and respected Californian, Don Jose R. Berreyesa, whose son was the Alcalde of Sonoma who had been recently imprisoned by Fremont. The two others were twin brothers and sons of Don Francisco de Haro of Yerba Buena, who had served two terms as the first and third Alcalde of Yerba Buena (later named San Francisco). These murders were observed by Jasper O'Farrell, a famous architect and designer of San Francisco, who wrote a letter detailing it to the Los Angeles Star published on September 27, 1856. This eyewitness account, together with others, were widely published during the presidential election of 1856, which featured Fremont as the first anti-slavery Republican nominee versus Democrat James Buchanan. It is widely speculated that this incident, together with other military blunders, sunk Fremont's political aspirations. In late 1846 Fremont, acting under orders from Commodore Robert F. Stockton, led a military expedition of 300 men to capture Santa Barbara, California, during the Mexican-American War. Fremont led his unit over the Santa Ynez Mountains at San Marcos Pass in a rainstorm on the night of December 24, 1846. In spite of losing many of his horses, mules and cannons, which slid down the muddy slopes during the rainy night, his men regrouped in the foothills the next morning, and captured the presidio without bloodshed, thereby capturing the town. A few days later Fremont led his men southeast toward Los Angeles, accepting the surrender of the leader Andres Pico and signing the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847, which terminated the war in upper California. On January 16, 1847, Commodore Stockton appointed Fremont military governor of California following the Treaty of Cahuenga. However, U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny, who outranked Fremont (and who arguably had the same rank as Stockton, which was one star), said he had orders from the U.S. president and secretary of war to serve as governor. He asked Fremont to give up the governorship, which the latter stubbornly refused to do for a time. Kearny gave Fremont several opportunities to change his position. When they arrived at Fort Leavenworth in August 1847, Kearny arrested Fremont and brought him to Washington, for court martial. Fremont was convicted of mutiny, disobedience of a superior officer and military misconduct. While approving the court's decision, Pres. James K. Polk quickly commuted his sentence of dishonorable discharge due to his services and Fremont resigned.
Mountain Men
Mountain men were explorers who roamed the mountains during the 1840's. Mountain men were usually single men that went to the rockies in a way to start a new life. Mountain Men sought business through fur trade. They mostly lived "with the wilderness" and did everything in the mountains. Mountain men were known for helping travelers through the Mountains with their wagons. Without the mountain men, the number of people that successfully made it to the west would have dropped tremendously.
Lecompton, Kansas
This was the capitol of KS from 1855-1861, this period is know as "The Bleeding Kansas". In 1857 Kansas government drafted the "Lecompte Constitution", which was to bring KS into the Union as a slave state. The constitution was revoked by a majority of anti-slavery party members. Then new anti-slavery legislature started to immediately abolish slave laws, and with their victory named Topeka the new capitol of Kansas January 29, 1861. In comparison: The American Civil War - April 12, 1861.
Lincoln Vs Douglas Debates
The debates were held in 1858 in Illinois in the seven towns called Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg, Quincy, and Alton (in that order). However when the debates reached Freeport, Quincy, and Alton they drew in a larger crowd, because these towns had a monumental importance to citizens across the nation. The debates were for a place in the senate so that their parties legislature could take command. The two candidates were Abraham Lincoln (Republican), and Stephen Douglas (Democrat). During the debates, the newspapers helped each candidate edit their speeches, and so the Democratic papers fixed Douglases speeches, but left Lincolns untouched, and vice versa with Republican papers. Lincoln did not win the place in the senate, but after his experience he wrote a book in it containing all of his speeches in their desired form, this book influenced his nomination for president. All of the debates obviously covered slavery, and Lincoln was most concerned with slavery in new states. Republican party wanted no slavery, Democratic party achieved "popular sovereignty".
Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), was a ruling by the U.S. supreme court that people of African descent brought into the United States and held as slaves (or their descendants, whether or not they were slaves) were not protected by the Constitution and could never be U.S. citizens. This was the first case since Marbury v. Madison that an Act of Congress was held unconstitutional. This decision was thought to have caused the Civil war. In reaching this decision Chief Justice Roger Taney hoped to settle the issue of slavery with the courts decision, however this did the opposite and began many debates around the country.
Narrative of Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass wrote an autobiography about his brutal life as a slave in 1845. He was known as a very strong social critic. At the age of ten or eleven, Douglass is sent to live in Baltimore with Hugh and Sophia Auld. Douglass overhears a conversation between them and comes to understand that whites maintain power over black slaves by keeping them uneducated. Douglass resolves to educate himself and escape from slavery. However, he is later taken from the Aulds and placed with Edward Covey, a slave "breaker," for a year. Under Covey's brutal treatment, Douglass loses his desire to learn and escape.Douglass decides to fight back against Covey's brutal beatings. The shocked Covey does not whip Douglass ever again. He's hired again by another master, where he teaches education to slaves.
Liberty Laws
Laws enacted by 9 northern states to prohibit the use of state law facilities such as jails or law officers in the recapture or fugitive slaves. They were series of laws passed in response to the Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850. The laws were designed to protect free blacks, freedmen, and fugitive slaves by effectively nullifying the Fugitive Slave Law without actually invoking the controversial doctrine of nullification.
Impending
1.
about to happen; imminent: their impending marriage.
2.
imminently threatening or menacing: an impending storm.
(They gave two so i didnt know which one he'd want)
Inevitable
Bound to happen. It was inevitable that that politicians would debate over whether future territories would be slave or free state. because slavery was such a big issue.
Trenchant
vigorous; effective; energetic: a trenchant policy of political reform.
Unassailable
not open to attack or assault, as by military force or argument: unassailable fortifications;unassailable logic.
Fugitive Slave Law
A law first passed by congress in 1793 to allow the seizure and return of slaves who escaped into another state or a federal territory; Congress passed a second version of the law in 1850 to establish fines on federal officials who refused to enforce the law or from whom a runaway slave escaped, to establish fines on individuals who helped slaves escape, to ban runaway slaves from testifying on their own behalf in court, and to give special commissioners power to enforce the law.
Matthew Perry
In 1853, an American fleet of 4 warships under commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Tokyo with a letter from President Filmore asking for the opening of Japanese- American foreign relations. Perry returned with a larger fleet and was successful at signing the Treaty of Kanagawa which provided the return of shipwrecked US soldiers, the opening of 2 US ports, and a US consulate on Japanese soil.
Samuel Morse
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance. VERY IMPORTANT IN WESTWARD EXPANSION/MANIFEST DESTINY (think of those paintings and the lady lying down those telegraph lines).
Jay Hawkers
Anti-slavery supporters in Kansas- they resorted to violence to promote their ideas. They were essentially a militant group that used guerrilla warfare against slavery supporters from Missouri.