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exam history questions

Know how archaeologists and anthropologists determine the ages of fossils and artifacts

1. Archaeologists are special trained scientists who work like detectives to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples. They learn about early people excavating and studying the traces of early settlements. An excavated site, called an archaeological dig, provides one of the richest sources of clues to the prehistoric way of life. Bones might reveal what people looked like, how tall they were, they types of food they ate, diseases they may have had, and how long they lived. Anthropologists study culture, or a people's unique way of life. They examine artifacts at archaeological digs where they re-create a picture of early people's cultural behavior.

Identify and describe the three stages of early human development

1. Homo Habilis- means "man of skill," had tools made out of lava rock that were used to cut and crack open bones. Leakey's discovered the first one
2. Homo Erectus- means "upright man," first to use fire and fire provided warmth in cold climates, cooked food, frightened away attacking animals, and helped them settle new lands, may have developed beginnings of spoken language which gave them greater control over the environment and boosted chances for survival, skillful hunters, invented more sophisticated tools for digging, scraping, and cutting, and might have named objects, places, animals, and plants, and exchanged ideas
3. Homo Sapien- means "wise men" biological species to which modern human beings belong, had much larger brains, Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons are classified as an early group of Homo Sapiens
1) Neanderthals- well-developed muscles, thick bones, heavy slanted brows, tried to control and explain their world: developed religious beliefs and performed rituals, held a funeral and covered that person's body with flowers, survived harsh winters in caves or temporary shelters made of wood and animal skins
2) Cro-Magnons- skeletal remains show that they are identical to modern humans, probably strong and generally about 51/2 feet tall, made many new tools with specialized uses, planned their hunts: studied animals' habits and stalked their pray- their superior hunting strategies allowed them to survive more easily

Explain how technology affected the Paleolithic way of life

use of tools where during this period- this made survival easier

What was the Neolithic Revolution


what did the ability to grow food lead to


what were the consequences of the Neolithic revolution

A population boom and a steady source of food

Identify the criteria for a civilization and gave a historical example to go with each

Advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
Advanced Cities- Uruk
Specialized Workers- merchants
Complex Institutions- formal governments with officials and laws
Record Keeping- scribes using cuneiform- Cuneiform tablets
Advanced Technology- Wheel, plow, sailboat

Chapter 2 Early river Valley Civilization


How does geography influence the place and the way in which people live


Who named Mesopotamia and what does it mean


What is the fertile crescent


What are the rivers that border Mesopotamia


What is meant by the Levant


What was the first city-state in Mesopotamia


Be able to describe a Sumerian city


What was the first empire in ancient Mesopotamia and who ruled it


How is an empire different from a country or a city-state


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