98 terms

History of Sports Exam 2

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Association Football
soccer game, much closer to rugby
Walter Camp
Captain for the Yale football team and advisor to the team after his graduation. Creator of many innovations in the game including separating the two teams with a line of scrimmage. Eventually would be known as "Father of American Football" because of his contributions to the game.
Flying Wedge
Also known as the mass-momentum play first used by Harvard. The five heaviest players would form a v-shaped wedge around the ball carrier and run over opponents. These plays caused the most injuries in the early days of football.
Conferences
The first conference in college football history mad up of seven midwestern schools. When three more schools joined by 1912 it officially change its name to the Big 10.
Theodore Roosevelt
Wanted to create new rules for football so it was not so dangerous, his son played football
Strenuous Life
Phrase coined by Theodore Roosevelt who believed the absence of a recent war had led to feminization of the late-19th century male. The Strenuous Life was designed to toughen up the American male through vigorous exercise and sports.
Intercollegiate Athletic Association
Formed by 62 schools in 1905 not including West Coast schools and the "Big Three." Its primary duty was to establish rules for play by its member schools.
NCAA
Combination of the ICAA and the old rules committee into the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1911. The combination of its founding and the new rules changes brought college football in the modern age in 1912.
College Football's Modern Age
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New Middle Class
With Victorianism officially dead by the 1920s, a new middle class emerged that searched for more excitement and were much more tolerant and even embracing of sports.
Red Grange
First modern football hero who fit perfectly into the new middle class. He was an explosive player who played at Illinois and then in the brand-new National Football League. His ability to slip through tackler's hands earned him the nickname the "Galloping Ghost."
Charles "Cash and Carry" Pyle
Former theatre promoter who would gain fame as a sport promoter-most notably as Red Grange's agent.
Notre Dame
Catholic school founded in South Bend, Indiana, in 1844. By the early 20th Century it was known for its academics and baseball team.
Knute Rockne
Norwegian immigrant who played and then coached for the Notre Dame football team. It was his innovations as both a player and a coach that put Notre Dame football on the map by the second decade of the 20th century.
Carnegie Report
Report in the late 1920s that said colleges were putting too much emphasis on money and winning in college football than on academics.
Honus Wagner
Pittsburgh Pirates shortstop who is considered the first star player of the 20th century. He was a great hitter but also an excellent fielder and could play any position.
Ban Johnson
Former sportswriter and editor in Cincinnati who would go on to take over the struggling minor Western Baseball League. After improving the status of the league immensely he decided to make it a major league to compete with the National League in 1899-he renamed it the American League.
The American League
Ban Johnson renamed the Western (National) League to the 'American League' in 1899
First World Series
The first of these series occurred in 1903. World series was held at the end of the season between the pennant winners of the American and National Leagues.
John McGraw
Hard-nosed former player for the Baltimore Orioles who took over as manager of the NY Giants in 1902 where he remained for 30 years.
Merkle "Boner"
Error made by New York Giant Fred Merkle against the Chicago Cubs in a late season game in 1908 that ultimately cost the Giants the pennant
Babe Ruth
Began his professional career as a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox and later would transform the game of baseball when he was sold to the Yankees in 1920 and started hitting home runs. Others are often thrown into the mix with Ruth when the "greatest player of all time" discussions happen, but no one else changed the game like Ruth did in the 1920s.
Harry Frazee
contributed to Yankee dynasty because he as the Boston Red Sox owner he had a need for cash
1922 Supreme Court Decision
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Age of the Homerun
There was an average of 200 home runs hit per season in each league prior to 1919. By the mid-1920s, that number would triple to over 600 home runs per season. They think this happened because the ballparks were smaller, a new 'jackrabbit ball', use of more balls during the game, and the outlawing of the spitball before the 1920 season.
Rogers Hornsby
nicknamed "The Rajah", was an American baseball infielder, manager, and coach who played 23 seasons in Major League Baseball.
Lou Gehrig
Major League Baseball first baseman who played 17 seasons for the New York Yankees, from 1923 through 1939.
1927 Yankees
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"Dead Ball Era"
Also known as the "National Commission" era because prior to 1920 major league baseball was governed by a commission (committee) rather than a single commissioner. It got its name because the ball used during the time was less tightly wound and seemed softer than later years.
Depression's effect on baseball
By 1933, the attendance at baseball games had gone from 10 million or 6 million. To bring people back to the games they tried creating an all-star game (1933), a night baseball game (1935), they announced the first class of the baseball hall of fame (1936), and the hall opened the doors in Coopertown, the birthplace of baseball on its 100th birthday (1939). In the 1930s, the love affair between fans that may have been hundreds of miles away and their favorites teams' blossomed-the radio was the one appliance during the Depression.
Attendance also went down because Ruth had retired.
"Inside Game"
The type of baseball employed by managers during the dead-ball era. The strategy was predicted on the fact very few runs were going to be scored so every run was important. Managers would do whatever it took to score those runs (bunting, stealing, hit and runs). The manager who seemed to most embody this game was John McGraw.
Dynasties
New York Yankees- as of 2012 the team has won 40 American League pennants and 27 World Series titles (both are records). 2 things contributed to this dynasty: First was when the franchise was sold to Colonel Jacob Rupert and Captain Tillinghast Huston for $1.25 million in 1915. The second was Boston Red Sox owner Harry Frazee's need for cash.
New York Yankees
Originally called the "Highlanders" the team name was officially changed to the "Yankees" in 1913. The original Yankee dynasty of the 1920s can be credited to the team being purchased by Jacob Rupert and Tillinghast Huston in 1915 and Red Sox owner Harry Frazee selling off most of his team to the Yankees (including Babe Ruth).
Cardinals Farm System
The General Manager of the St. Louis Cardinals, Branch Rickey, is credited with the birth of the Farm System when he began purchasing minor league clubs. By the 1930s the Cardinals' system included 32 clubs and 700 players.
Branch Rickey
General Manager of the St. Louis Cardinals who can be credited with the birth of the Farm System when he began purchasing minor league clubs. By the 1930s the Cardinals system included 32 clubs and 700 players.
Joe DiMaggio
Took over as the star player for the Yankee dynasty after Ruth retired. The center fielder set the major league record 56-game hitting streak in 1941.
Ty Cobb
Georgia native who played for the Detroit Tigers for 24 seasons and established the highest batting average of all time (.367). Although not well liked due to his abrasive personality, his abilities were always well respected and he is often referred to as the greatest player ever.
Connie Mack
part-owner of the Philadelphia Athletics. He was Ban Johnson's idea of the perfect manager for the American League-he was sober, well dressed, and never argued with the umpires. His teams would embody the first dynasty of the American League.
Ted Williams
During the same season the DiMaggio was hitting 56 consecutive games (1941), the Red Sox outfielder batted .406. No player since has batted over .400. Many consider Williams the greatest pure hitter of all time.
Pudge Heffelfinger
believed to be the first professional football player in american history
The "First" NFL
the AAA was banned from playing other "Amateur" clubs by the Amateur Athletic Union, which led to the AAA not fielding a team in 1895. By 1896, there were enough acknowledged professional teams in Western Pennsylvania that the AAA came back and fielded what is believed to be the first all-salaried professional football team.
Canton Bulldogs
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APFA
American Professional Football Association: Professional league that began in Canton, Ohio, which would eventually change its name to the National Football League (NFL).
Modern NFL
begins around 1912, 1958 championship game
Green Bay Packers
consistently finished among leaders in 1920s. In 1927 they finished with the second best record in the league. 1929 they won their first NFL title, Curly's last season. 3 titles in a row by 1931
"Curly" Lambeau
Football player who was expelled from Notre Dame after it was discovered he played professionally. He then founded a professional team in his hometown of Green Bay, Wisconsin, knows as the Packers on which he played for ten years and coached for 30 years.
George Halas
Played football for U of Illinois prior to WWI, and after entering the armed forces, he was assigned to the Great Lakes Naval Training Station, which had a football squad that won the Rose Bowl in 1919. He played outfield for New York Yankees in 1919 season. Some people say Babe Ruth replaced him in 1920. In 1922, he changed the name of the Chicago Staley's to the Chicago Bears.
Joe Carr
First pick of the 1965 draft he was the highly touted quarterback from Alabama. The New York Jets paid him $400,000, the highest contract ever signed by a pro football player. He would guarantee a Jets victory in Super Bowl III in 1969 & win.
Bert Bell
First owner of the Philadelphia Eagles and would also serve as NFL Commissioner
1958 NFL Championship
Went into overtime and the Colts won with a touchdown.
Paul Brown
Football coach who achieved success on three levels: High School (Massillon, OH), College (Ohio State), and professional (Cleveland Browns). His Browns team was one of three that the NFL absorbed in 1949. Innovative coach who was the first to call plays from the sideline and put assistant coaches in the press box for a better view of the game.
Pete Rozelle
NFL Commissioner who served for nearly 30 years and led the league into its "Golden Age" by encouraging owners to "think league" first.
Vince Lombardi
Took over as the Green Bay Packers head coach in 1959 and led the team to 5 NFL titles in 1960s and victories in the first 2 Super Bowls (1967 and 1968).
NFL's "Golden Age"
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1961 Sports Broadcasting Act
Included in Rozelle's "think league" ideology was the ability for the league to negotiate its own broadcasting rights. He was instrumental in advocating that this act be passed by congress to give the NFL and other sports leagues that power.
AFL-NFL Merger
announced in 1966 that the 2 leagues would merge and there would be a common draft, a common commissioner (Pete Rozelle), and a championship game between the 2 leagues at the end of the season (the Super Bowl).
Super Bowl
not called "Super Bowl" until the third installment in 1969. Super Bowl I took place on January 15th, 1967 and it was not much of a contest. The Packers beat the Kansas City Chiefs 35-10. Super Bowl II, the Packers beat the Raiders 33-14.
Wimbledon
First major tennis championship established at the All England Croquet Club near the Wimbledon train station in 1877.
USNLTA
United States National Lawn Tennis Association. Established in 1881 and began hosting the United States championships at James Gordon Bennett's Casino Club in Newport, RI for 34 years until the tournament was moved to Forest Hills, NY, in 1915.
Rod Laver
jack Kramer convinced him to go pro in 1962 and when many of the other great players did likewise it forced the grand slam tournaments to open up. He would win 200 titles including 11 grand slam victories and was ranked number 1 for 7 consecutive seasons (1964-1970).
Bill Tilden
First great American champion who won 6 consecutive U.S. championships between 1920 and 1926. He was the number one player in the world for most of the 1920s. He would also win 2 Wimbledon titles before turning professional in 1930.
Jack Kramer
Protégé of Tilden who looked up to him and wanted to play like him. He emerged as a great champion in the immediate post-war years but was forced to retire because of an arthritic back in 1954. After that he made his mission opening up the major (grand slam) championships to both professionals and amateurs
The "Open" Era of Tennis
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Jimmy Connors
First great American champion of the "Open Era." He won 8 grand slam events in the 1970s and 80s and played competitive tennis well into his forties becoming somewhat of an elder statesman in the game in the 1990s.
John McEnroe
Combustible "Bad Bou" of tennis who came on the scene in the late 70s as a rival for Connors. He would also have tremendous rivalry with the Swede, Bjorn Borg, including denying Borg a 6th consecutive championship at Wimbledon in 1981. he would end his career with 7 grand slam titles.
Pete Sampras
Emerged as the greatest of these American players of the decade. He held the number 1 ranking in the world for most of the decade and retired in 2003 with 14 grand slam titles-most of all time.
Royal and Ancient Golf
St. Andrews Golf Club was named "Royal and Ancient" by King William IV in 1834. It came to be the governing body of gold throughout the 19th Century.
Ben Hogan
Great rival of Snead's who was very different from him-much smaller and more serious. He was almost killed in a car accident in 1949 but came back to win the U.S. Open in 1950 and winning 6 of his 9 major championships after the accident.
Sam Snead
Enjoyed one of the longest careers in gold history with 46 years separating his first victories from his last. He still holds the records for most total wins in his career (165) and most on the PGA Tour (82).
Byron Nelson
Credited with creating the "modern swing" which involved more leg turn and power from the lower half of the body. In 1945 he won 18 tournaments including a PGA-record 11 in a row. He retired shortly after at the age of 34 to buy a ranch.
Arnold Palmer
Brought golf into the television age with his g0-for-broke style and everyman persona. He was crowned the "King" by the golf fans and remains one of the most beloved figures in the sport.
Jack Nicklaus
Came along in the 1960s as a rival for Palmer. He was never embraced by the public Palmer was. He would go on to win more major championships than anyone (18) and is often considered the greatest player of all time.
Tiger Woods
He became number 1 in the world in 1999 and held that position for most of the next decade. He won his first major (The Masters) in 1997 becoming the youngest to win that tournament at 21. He would win 13 more majors by 2008 trailing only his idol Jack Nicklaus by 4. His best year was 2000, winning 3 majors in a row with the U.S. Open. When he won the 2001 Masters he held all 4 majors at once and although it was not officially the Grand Slam it became known as the "Tiger Slam." Tiger's fall from grace began in 2009 when it was discovered he had had multiple extramarital affairs. He lost most of his sponsorships, fell as low as 58th in the world rankings, and has not won a major tournament since then.
Francis Quimet
A 20 year old former caddy at Brookline Country Club in Boston who won the 1913 U.S. Open at his home course in a playoff over great British champions Harry Vardon and Ted Ray.
Harry Vardon
winner of the British Open Championship a record six times
Pierre de Coubertin
French nobleman who made it his mission to revive the Olympic Games and formed and served as the president of the International Olympic Committee, which governed the games, for 30 years
IOC
International Olympic Committee, governed games for 30 years
First Modern Games
The revived games were first held in Athens, Greece, in 1896 as a tribute to the ancient Greeks who had originally held the games.
Myth of Greek Amateurism
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Avery Brundage
American Olympic team member in 1912 that would later serve as president of the American Olympic Committee and IOC.
Games between World Wars
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Johnny Weismuller
American swimmer who set Olympic and world records in 100 and 400 meter events in 1924 and 1928 and would later become famous portraying Tarzan in many Hollywood movies.
Winter Games
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Babe Didrikson
Winner of 3 medals in track and field at the 1932 LA Olympics
1936 Games
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Jesse Owens
Track and field athlete who was the star of the Berlin Olympics in 1936 winning 4 gold medals and setting both Olympic and world records much to the dismay of Hitler.
Olympics and the Cold War
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Apartheid
The South African Policy of racial segregation that would cause their Olympic teams to be banned from competition beginning in the 1960s.
1968 Games in Mexico City
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Tommie Smith and John Carlos
African-American track athletes who raised their fists in a "Black Power" salute during the medal ceremony in the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. They were both kicked off the team and given 48 hours to leave Mexico City.
1972 Games in Munich
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Mark Splitz
During the 1972 games he set a swimming record with 7 gold medals that stood until Michael Phelps received 8 in 2008.
Age of the Boycott
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1980's "Miracle on Ice"
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Abandonment of Amateurism
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1992 "Dream Team"
American basketball team during the 1992 Olympics that consisted of professional players for the first time. It is widely believed to be the greatest basketball team ever assembled and easily won the gold medal.
Carnegie Report
Report in the late 1920s that said colleges were putting too much emphasis on money and winning in college football than on academics.
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