Terms in this set (54)
B and T cell proliferation
increase macrophage microbicidal capabilities.
inhibits translation (stops virus from replicating) this is stimulated by INFalpha and beta
breaks down RNA (breaks down virus) this is stimulated by INFalpha and beta
Pattern recognition receptor. This is found on phagocytes and allows them to recognize pathogens (PAMPs)
Pathogen associated molecular pattern. This is the molecular structure of pathogens that is recognized by phagocytes (PRR's)
Gram negative organism's membrane is made up of
Dual layer with LPS outer layer (lipopolysaccharide)
Gram positive organism's membrane is made up of
very THICK layer of peptidoglycan, no extra layer outside. These are made up of layers of sugars and cross-linking are amino acids. In between you have teichoic acids that are sticking out. These acids are what our immune system will recognize.
A set of about 20 proteins that will recognize foreign material and form a MAC (membrane attack complex) to drill holes into the membrane. (INNATE)
3 types of lymphoid cells
T cell B cell (adaptive) and NK cell (innate)
Cells of myeloid lineage
monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil (PMN)
Increases expression of acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein)
increased vasodilation and vascular permeability (inflammation)
What molecular structure forms the BEST epitope (antigen)
Lipids make BAD epitopes!!!
T helper cells. do not kill - help B cells make antibodies, help T cytotoxic cells proliferate (they cannot on their own). In HIV, T-helper cells are affected.
T cytotoxic cells. Kill infected cells directly (ie. bacteria located within the cell, virus-infected cells)
Smallest, but the most prevalent. Crosses placenta and gives passive immunity to fetus. Four subclasses
The first responder, form a pentamer in the blood, but can be monomeric when attached to B cells.
B cells initially always start producing IgM upon exposure until taught to make a different type.
IgA2 is dimeric when secreted (mucus tears saliva and breast milk) IgA1 is a monomer and in the blood.
very rare and the function is unknown. It is typically attached to B cells
is involved in allergies. The IgE receptor is found on Mast cells
development of B cells and the myeloid lineage
activation of B cells and class switch from IgM
causes expression of INF gamma
a type of cytokine that attracts cells to the area (example is IL-8)
Four types of PRRs
Toll like receptor, C type lectin receptor, NOD receptor, RIG I helicase
Labeling something for killing, increasing its chance for destruction and recognition by other cells.
complement control proteins (put the brakes on the complement system)
membrane attack complex.
MAC inserts small holes in the membrane of the microbe causing lysis. When complement proteins come together to form MAC, it releases C3a and C5a components of complement - induces inflammation.
binds to carbohydrates on bacterial surfaces, and activates the complement pathway
Major histocompatibility type 1. Found on ALL nucleated cells. Intracellular pathogens are presented on MHC I
APC - the three types
Antigen presenting cell. 1. Macrophage 2. B cell 3.Dendritic cells
IDC - interdigitating dendritic cells
present antigen to T cells; they are primarily located under the skin and the mucosa (e.g., Langerhans' cells in the skin); they migrate to local lymph nodes, where they present antigen to helper T cells. They play a role in deleting T cells that react against self antigens during selection
FDC - follicular dendritic cells
are located in the B-cell-containing germinal centers of the follicles in the spleen and lymph nodes (secondary lymph organs). They do not present antigen to helper T cells because they do not produce class II MHC proteins. Rather, they present NATIVE (not processed) antigen to B cells. B cells that have undergone mutations that make them bind STRONGER will be able to attach to these FDC's and proliferate into plasma and memory cells. B cells that have become WEAKER with undergo apoptosis.
Which cells have a high N:C ratio
All B cells, 90% of T helper cells
Cells ALWAYS characterized by LGL (many granules)
tyrosine kinase (enzyme that phosphorylates)
will activate T cells by interacting with the CD3 complex
Th1 cells are involved in:
Cell-mediated response, intracellular bacteria. Produce IFN-gamma and IL-2
Th2 cells are involved in:
Humoral response. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13. Important in causing class switch of B cells
Treg or Tsuppressor cells are involved in:
Down regulation of the immune system. TGF beta, IL-10 will inhibit the immune response.
inhibit or suppress the production of INF-gamma
on B cells. Important for interacting with Th cells, which will lead to CLASS SWITCH
NK cell killer inhibitory receptors. Prevents NK cells from killing healthy cells (this recognizes MHCI)
M cells are found in Peyer's patches. They allow pathogens to come right on in though transcytosis because there is a host of defense cells (a germinal center) underneath the M cell.
high endothelial venule. This is where lymphocytes LEAVE the blood and enter lymph node/thymus
Antibodies can do the following:
3. Activate complement
4. Prevent attachment of microbes.
5. Catalytic activity
The basic structure of all immunoglobulin molecules is a unit consisting of :
two identical light polypeptide chains and two identical heavy polypeptide chains
The class and subclass of an Ig are determined by which chain?
Variation that EVERYONE has in the population (we all have IgG1,2,3,and4)
IgG2 is directed against:
polysaccharide antigens, gram positive bacteria