Terms in this set (24)
Trait theories describe personality in terms of characteristic behaviors and motives or traits.
Trait-label that defines stable, enduring behavioral patterns
Personality Trait Characteristics
All humans have traits, considered to be fairly stable, assist in assessing personality, some traits are more basic than others
Personality Trait Theorists
Cardinal, Secondary, Central
Three dominant personality dimensions
Personality linked to heredity but also influenced by conditioning
The Big Five
Five factor model of personality, developed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa
-Traits linked to personal attributes
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness
friendly, affectionate, assertive, sociable
anxious, self pitying, insecure, tense
Openness to experience
independent, curious, flexible, imaginative
cooperative, helpful, trusting, sympathetic
disciplined, punctual, organized, dependable
Assessing Personality Traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
-Designed to diagnose mental disorders
-Measures 10 personality traits
-Interpreting results is complicated
Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) Questionnaire
-Developed by Raymond Cattell
-Used factor analysis to narrow down various traits into fewer basic categories
-Assesses 16 personality traits
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
-Developed by Hans Eysenck and Sybil Eysnck
-Designed assessment scale based on measures in extraversion-introversion and stability-instability
NEO Personality Inventory
-Developed by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae
-Measures big five personality traits
Influences on Trait Development
Development is generally consistent
Influenced by heredity
Influence on Trait Expression
Trait expression is influenced by environment
-Social display rules
-Emotional and behavioral control
a dominant personality trait that appears to shape personal behavior
an outgoing, active person who directions one's energies and interests towards other people and things
a complicated statistical technique used to identify the relationship between multiple variables
a reserved person who is more preoccupied with inner thoughts and feelings than social interaction
a stable aspect of personality that influences behavior
a stable personality characteristic represented by a cluster of traits that identify core dimensions of personality
a stable personality characteristic that can be observed in certain situations
Which other personality perspective is connected to Hans Eysenck's biological perspective of personality?
Describe two criticisms in response to the biological perspective of personality development.
One noted criticism of the biological perspective is in the interpretation of research results. Researchers have been criticized with being overly obsessed with establishing exactly how much heredity influences personality when ratios are all that can be obtained through research. Another criticism is that there is no biological theory that defines how biology shapes personality structure and development.
Currently, there is no comprehensive theory to direct empirical research for biological influences on personality.
Describe two criticisms of the five-factor model of personality.
One criticism of the model is that more main traits are needed in order to adequately account for the variation in human personality. Another criticism is that the model provides no explanations for personality development.
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