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From 2007 Barron's SAT Biology exam pages 279-280
Terms in this set (53)
a group of individuals of one species living in one area who can interbreed and interact with each other
consists of all the organisms living in one area
all the organisms in an area as well as the abiotic factors they interact with
nonliving factors including temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks and soil
all the organisms and organism may interact with including birds, insects, predators, parasites
total number of individuals in a population. Limited by births, deaths, immigration and emigration
mark and recapture
a common technique for estimating density
pattern of spacing of individuals within the area the population inhabits
three types of dispersion patterns
clumped, uniform, and random
maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
factors in biotic potential
1) age reproduction begins 2) life span capable of reproducing 3) number of reproductive periods 4)number of offspring
maximum population the environment can support
U-curve growth for population. Often for recently introduced population such as new bacteria in a petri dish.
organisms that reproduce and mature rapidly when the environment is uncrowded and resources are vast, e.g. insects
organisms that maximize population size near the carrying capacity for an environment. Can reproduce many times and have slow maturation with developed young and intensive parenting. e.g. mammals
factors that limit population growth
limiting factor that increases as population density increases. e.g. competition for food, buildup of waste, predators, and disease
limiting factors in population growth not related to population density, e.g. earthquakes, storms, fire, and flood
cyclical overcrowding and predators
in the example of the lynx and hare, the reasons the hare population would have exponential growth and then a crash. Overcrowding may have led to overgrazing and malnutrition. Case study was by the Hudson Bay company from 1850-1930
One of five population interactions. Two species inhabit the same area and occupy the same niche. The loser can go extinct or evolve.
"two populations cannot coexist if they share a niche (use the same resources)." Proven by Gause when combining two types of paramecium in the same petri dish
A species in competition evolves through natural selection to exploit different resources
One of five population interactions. Can be animals eating animals or animals eating plants.
thorns and chemical poisons
plants have evolved these to protect against animal attacks. e.g. strychnine, mescaline, morphine, nicotine.
One of three passive defenses. Bright coloring (such as red or orange) of poisonous animals.
Copycat coloring where a harmless animal mimics the coloration of a poisonous animal. One of three passive defenses.
Two or more poisonous species look alike and gain advantage from combined numbers. It scare off predators. One of three passive defenses.
One of five population interactions. Symbiotic relationship where parasite benefits and host is harmed. e.g. tapeworm and a human
One of five population interactions. Symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit. e.g. bacteria in human intestines that produce vitamins for the host
One of five population interactions. Symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is not helped or harmed. e.g. barnacles on a whale (whale is unaware of barnacle).
the amount of energy stored in a trophic level converted to organic matter at the next trophic level
Have highest biomass of any trophic level and convert light energy to bond energy. Examples are diatoms, phytoplankton, and green plants.
eat producers and are herbivores. e.g. grasshopper and zooplankton
eat primary consumers. e.g. frogs and small fish
top of the food chain, eat secondary consumers. Have the smallest biomass and are the least stable trophic level. e.g. hawk and large fish
gross primary productivity
amount of energy converted to chemical energy bu photosynthesis (per unit of time).
net primary productivity
gross primary productivity minus the energy used for respiration
organisms at higher trophic levels have a greater concentration of stored toxins. e.g. bald eagle and DDT
bacteria and fungi that recycle nutrients back to the soil to nourish plants
the process of rebuilding an ecosystem after it is destroyed
The essential characteristic of primary ecological succession
the final stable community after rebuilding
an existing community is cleared by a disturbance (fire) that leaves soil intact.
lichen and mosses that initial inhabit a new ecosystem and build the soil
very large regions of earth whose distribution depends on the amount of rainfall and temperature in an area. Have different vegetation and animal life.
the largest and most stable biome on earth
tropical rain forest
the biome with the greatest diversity of species
this biome experiences the greatest fluctuations in temperature
biome. These cover huge areas and have low annual rain fall with mainly grazing animals
This biome has trees that drop their leaves in winter, diverse plants species and vertical stratification of species
(Taiga) found in north regions and is the largest terrestrial biome. Dominated by conifer (evergreen) trees with heavy snowfall and cold winters
little rainfall, very far north, many insects. Number of individual organisms is high but not many different species
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